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Timeline of quantum mechanics, molecular physics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics

   * 440 BC Democritus speculates about fundamental indivisible
     particles---calls them "atoms"
   * 1766 Henry Cavendish discovers and studies hydrogen
   * 1778 Carl Scheele and Antoine Lavoisier discover that air is composed
     mostly of nitrogen and oxygen
   * 1781 Joseph Priestley creates water by igniting hydrogen and oxygen
   * 1800 William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle use electrolysis to
     separate water into hydrogen and oxygen
   * 1803 John Dalton introduces atomic ideas into chemistry and states that
     matter is composed of atoms of different weights
   * 1811 Amedeo Avogadro claims that equal volumes of gases should contain
     equal numbers of molecules
   * 1832 Michael Faraday states his laws of electrolysis
   * 1871 Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev systematically examines the periodic
     table and predicts the existence of gallium, scandium, and germanium
   * 1873 Johannes van der Waals introduces the idea of weak attractive
     forces between molecules
   * 1885 Johann Balmer finds a mathematical expression for observed
     hydrogen line wavelengths
   * 1887 Heinrich Hertz discovers the photoelectric effect
   * 1894 Lord Rayleigh and William Ramsay discover argon by
     spectroscopically analyzing the gas left over after nitrogen and oxygen
     are removed from air
   * 1895 William Ramsay discovers terrestrial helium by spectroscopically
     analyzing gas produced by decaying uranium
   * 1896 Antoine Becquerel discovers the radioactivity of uranium
   * 1896 Pieter Zeeman studies the splitting of sodium D lines when sodium
     is held in a flame between strong magnetic poles
   * 1897 Joseph Thomson discovers the electron
   * 1898 William Ramsay and Morris Travers discover neon, krypton, and
   * 1898 Marie Curie and Pierre Curie isolate and study radium and polonium
   * 1899 Ernest Rutherford discovers that uranium radiation is composed of
     positively charged alpha particles and negatively charged beta
   * 1900 Paul Villard discovers gamma-rays while studying uranium decay
   * 1900 Johannes Rydberg refines the expression for observed hydrogen line
   * 1900 Max Planck states his quantum hypothesis and blackbody radiation
   * 1902 Philipp Lenard observes that maximum photoelectron energies are
     independent of illuminating intensity but depend on frequency
   * 1902 Theodor Svedberg suggests that fluctuations in molecular
     bombardment cause the Brownian motion
   * 1905 Albert Einstein explains the photoelectric effect
   * 1906 Charles Barkla discovers that each element has a characteristic
     X-ray and that the degree of penetration of these X-rays is related to
     the atomic weight of the element
   * 1909 Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden discover large angle deflections of
     alpha particles by thin metal foils
   * 1909 Ernest Rutherford and Thomas Royds demonstrate that alpha
     particles are doubly ionized helium atoms
   * 1911 Ernest Rutherford explains the Geiger-Marsden experiment by
     invoking a nuclear atom model and derives the Rutherford cross section
   * 1912 Max von Laue suggests using lattice solids to diffract X-rays
   * 1912 Walter Friedrich and Paul Knipping diffract X-rays in zinc blende
   * 1913 William Bragg and Lawrence Bragg work out the Bragg condition for
     strong X-ray reflection
   * 1913 Henry Moseley shows that nuclear charge is the real basis for
     numbering the elements
   * 1913 Niels Bohr presents his quantum model of the atom
   * 1913 Robert Millikan measures the fundamental unit of electric charge
   * 1913 Johannes Stark demonstrates that strong electric fields will split
     the Balmer spectral line series of hydrogen
   * 1914 James Franck and Gustav Hertz observe atomic excitation
   * 1914 Ernest Rutherford suggests that the positively charged atomic
     nucleus contains protons
   * 1915 Arnold Sommerfeld develops a modified Bohr atomic model with
     elliptic orbits to explain relativistic fine structure
   * 1916 Gilbert Lewis and Irving Langmuir formulate an electron shell
     model of chemical bonding
   * 1917 Albert Einstein introduces the idea of stimulated radiation
   * 1921 Alfred Lande introduces the Lande g-factor
   * 1922 Arthur Compton studies X-ray photon scattering by electrons
   * 1922 Otto Stern and Walter Gerlach show "space quantization"
   * 1923 Louis de Broglie suggests that electrons may have wavelike
   * 1924 Wolfgang Pauli states the quantum exclusion principle
   * 1924 John Lennard-Jones proposes a semiempirical interatomic force law
   * 1924 Satyendra Bose and Albert Einstein introduce Bose-Einstein
   * 1925 George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit postulate electron spin
   * 1925 Pierre Auger discovers the Auger autoionization process
   * 1925 Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan formulate quantum
     matrix mechanics
   * 1926 Erwin Schrdinger states his nonrelativistic quantum wave equation
     and formulates quantum wave mechanics
   * 1926 Erwin Schrdinger proves that the wave and matrix formulations of
     quantum theory are mathematically equivalent
   * 1926 Oskar Klein and Walter Gordon state their relativistic quantum
     wave equation
   * 1926 Enrico Fermi discovers the spin-statistics connection
   * 1926 Paul Dirac introduces Fermi-Dirac statistics
   * 1927 Clinton Davission, Lester Germer, and George Thomson confirm the
     wavelike nature of electrons
   * 1927 Werner Heisenberg states the quantum uncertainty principle
   * 1927 Max Born interprets the probabilistic nature of wavefunctions
   * 1928 Chandrasekhara Raman studies optical photon scattering by
   * 1928 Paul Dirac states his relativistic electron quantum wave equation
   * 1928 Charles G. Darwin and Walter Gordon solve the Dirac equation for a
     Coulomb potential
   * 1929 Oskar Klein discovers the Klein paradox
   * 1929 Oskar Klein and Y. Nishina derive the Klein-Nishina cross section
     for high energy photon scattering by electrons
   * 1929 N.F. Mott derives the Mott cross section for the Coulomb
     scattering of relativistic electrons
   * 1930 Paul Dirac introduces electron hole theory
   * 1930 Erwin Schrdinger predicts the zitterbewegung motion
   * 1930 Fritz London explains van der Waals forces as due to the
     interacting fluctuating dipole moments between molecules
   * 1931 John Lennard-Jones proposes the Lennard-Jones interatomic
   * 1931 Irene Joliot-Curie and Frdric Joliot observe but misinterpret
     neutron scattering in paraffin
   * 1931 Wolfgang Pauli puts forth the neutrino hypothesis to explain the
     apparent violation of energy conservation in beta decay
   * 1931 Linus Pauling discovers resonance bonding and uses it to explain
     the high stability of symmetric planar molecules
   * 1931 Paul Dirac shows that charge conservation can be explained if
     magnetic monopoles exist
   * 1931 Harold Urey discovers deuterium using evaporation concentration
     techniques and spectroscopy
   * 1932 John Cockcroft and Thomas Walton split lithium and boron nuclei
     using proton bombardment
   * 1932 James Chadwick discovers the neutron
   * 1932 Werner Heisenberg presents the proton-neutron model of the nucleus
     and uses it to explain isotopes
   * 1932 Carl Anderson discovers the positron
   * 1933 Max Delbruck suggests that quantum effects will cause photons to
     be scattered by an external electric field
   * 1934 Irene Joliot-Curie and Frdric Joliot bombard aluminum atoms with
     alpha particles to create artificially radioactive phosphorus-30
   * 1934 Leo Szilard realizes that nuclear chain reactions may be possible
   * 1934 Enrico Fermi formulates his theory of beta decay
   * 1934 Lev Davidovich Landau tells Edward Teller that nonlinear molecules
     may have vibrational modes which remove the degeneracy of an orbitally
     degenerate state
   * 1934 Enrico Fermi suggests bombarding uranium atoms with neutrons to
     make a 93 proton element
   * 1934 Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov reports that light is emitted by
     relativistic particles traveling in a nonscintillating liquid
   * 1935 Hideki Yukawa presents a theory of strong interactions and
     predicts mesons
   * 1935 Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen put forth the
     EPR paradox
   * 1935 Niels Bohr presents his analysis of the EPR paradox
   * 1936 Eugene Wigner develops the theory of neutron absorption by atomic
   * 1936 Hans Jahn and Edward Teller present their systematic study of the
     symmetry types for which the Jahn-Teller effect is expected
   * 1937 H. Hellmann finds the Hellmann-Feynman theorem
   * 1937 Seth Neddermeyer, Carl Anderson, J.C. Street, and E.C. Stevenson
     discover muons using cloud chamber measurements of cosmic rays
   * 1939 Richard Feynman finds the Hellmann-Feynman theorem
   * 1939 Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman bombard uranium salts with thermal
     neutrons and discover barium among the reaction products
   * 1939 Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch determine that nuclear fission is
     taking place in the Hahn-Strassman experiments
   * 1942 Enrico Fermi makes the first controlled nuclear chain reaction
   * 1942 Ernst Stuckelberg introduces the propagator to positron theory and
     interprets positrons as negative energy electrons moving backwards
     through spacetime
   * 1943 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga publishes his paper on the basic physical
     principles of quantum electrodynamics
   * 1947 Willis Lamb and Robert Retheford measure the Lamb-Retheford shift
   * 1947 Cecil Powell, C.M.G. Lattes, and G.P.S. Occhialini discover the
     pi-meson by studying cosmic ray tracks
   * 1947 Richard Feynman presents his propagator approach to quantum
   * 1948 Hendrik Casimir predicts a rudimentary attractive Casimir force on
     a parallel plate capacitor
   * 1951 Martin Deutsch discovers positronium
   * 1952 David Bohm propose his interpretation of quantum mechanics
   * 1953 R. Wilson observes Delbruck scattering of 1.33 MeV gamma-rays by
     the electric fields of lead nuclei
   * 1954 Chen Yang and Robert Mills investigate a theory of hadronic
     isospin by demanding local gauge invariance under isotopic spin space
     rotations---first non-Abelian gauge theory
   * 1955 Owen Chamberlain, Emilio Segre, Clyde Wiegand, and Thomas
     Ypsilantis discover the antiproton
   * 1956 Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan detect antineutrinos
   * 1956 Chen Yang and Tsung Lee propose parity violation by the weak
     nuclear force
   * 1956 Chien Shiung Wu discovers parity violation by the weak force in
     decaying cobalt
   * 1957 Gerhart Luders proves the CPT theorem
   * 1957 Richard Feynman, Murray Gell-Mann, Robert Marshak, and Ennackel
     Sudarshan propose a variational approximation (VA) Lagrangian for weak
   * 1958 Marcus Sparnaay experimentally confirms the Casimir effect
   * 1959 Yakir Aharonov and David Bohm predict the Aharonov-Bohm effect
   * 1960 R.G. Chambers experimentally confirms the Aharonov-Bohm effect
   * 1961 Murray Gell-Mann and Yuval Ne'eman discover the Eightfold Way
     patterns---SU(3) group
   * 1961 Jeffery Goldstone considers the breaking of global phase symmetry
   * 1962 Leon Lederman shows that the electron neutrino is distinct from
     the muon neutrino
   * 1963 Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig propose the quark/aces model
   * 1964 Peter Higgs considers the breaking of local phase symmetry
   * 1964 John Stewart Bell shows that all local hidden variable theories
     must satisfy Bell's inequality
   * 1964 Val Fitch and James Cronin observe CP violation by the weak force
     in the decay of K mesons
   * 1967 Steven Weinberg puts forth his electroweak model of leptons
   * 1969 J.C. Clauser, M. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. Holt propose a
     polarization correlation test of Bell's inequality
   * 1970 Sheldon Glashow, John Iliopoulos, and Luciano Maiani propose the
     charm quark
   * 1971 Gerard 't Hooft shows that the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg electroweak
     model can be renormalized
   * 1972 S. Freedman and J.C. Clauser perform the first polarization
     correlation test of Bell's inequality
   * 1973 David Politzer proposes the asymptotic freedom of quarks
   * 1974 Burton Richter and Samuel Ting discover the psi meson implying the
     existence of the charm quark
   * 1975 Martin Perl discovers the tauon
   * 1977 S.W. Herb finds the upsilon resonance implying the existence of
     the beauty quark
   * 1982 A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, and G. Roger perform a polarization
     correlation test of Bell's inequality that rules out conspiratorial
     polarizer communication
   * 1983 Carlo Rubbia, Simon van der Meer, and the CERN UA-1 collaboration
     find the W and Z intermediate vector bosons
   * 1989 The Z intermediate vector boson resonance width indicates three
     quark-lepton generations
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