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Timeline of cosmology

   * 1576 - Thomas Digges modifies the Copernican system by removing its
     outer edge and replacing the edge with a star-filled unbounded space
   * 1610 - Johannes Kepler uses the dark night sky to argue for a finite
   * 1720 - Edmund Halley puts forth an early form of Olbers' paradox
   * 1744 - Jean-Phillipe de Cheseaux puts forth an early form of Olbers'
   * 1826 - Heinrich Olbers puts forth Olbers' paradox
   * 1917 - Willem de Sitter derives an isotropic static cosmology with a
     cosmological constant as well as an empty expanding cosmology with a
     cosmological constant
   * 1922 - Vesto Slipher summarizes his findings on the spiral nebulae's
     systematic redshifts
   * 1922 - Alexander Friedmann finds a solution to the Einstein field
     equations which suggests a general expansion of space
   * 1927 - Georges Lematre discusses the creation event of an expanding
     universe governed by the Einstein field equations
   * 1928 - Harold Robertson briefly mentions that Vesto Slipher's redshift
     measurements combined with brightness measurements of the same galaxies
     indicate a redshift-distance relation
   * 1929 - Edwin Hubble demonstrates the linear redshift-distance relation
     and thus shows the expansion of the universe
   * 1933 - Edward Milne names and formalizes the cosmological principle
   * 1934 - Georges Lematre interprets the cosmological constant as due to
     a vacuum energy with an unusual perfect fluid equation of state
   * 1938 - Paul Dirac presents a cosmological theory where the
     gravitational constant decreases slowly so that the age of the universe
     divided by the atomic light-crossing time always equals the ratio of
     the electric force to the gravitational force between a proton and
   * 1948 - Ralph Alpher, Hans Bethe("in absentia"), and George Gamow
     examine element synthesis in a rapidly expanding and cooling universe
     and suggest that the elements were produced by rapid neutron capture
   * 1948 - Hermann Bondi, Thomas Gold, and Fred Hoyle propose steady state
     cosmologies based on the perfect cosmological principle
   * 1951 - William McCrea shows that the steady state C-field can be
     accommodated within general relativity by interpreting it as a
     contribution to the energy-momentum tensor with an unusual equation of
   * 1961 - Robert Dicke argues that carbon-based life can only arise when
     the Dirac large numbers hypothesis is true because this is when burning
     stars exist; first use of the weak anthropic principle
   * 1963 - Fred Hoyle and Jayant Narlikar show that the steady state theory
     can explain the isotropy of the universe because deviations from
     isotropy and homogeneity exponentially decay in time
   * 1964 - Fred Hoyle and Roger Tayler point out that the primordial helium
     abundance depends on the number of neutrinos
   * 1965 - Martin Rees and Dennis Sciama analyze quasar source count data
     and discover that the quasar density increases with redshift
   * 1965 - Edward Harrison resolves Olbers' paradox by noting the finite
     lifetime of stars
   * 1966 - Stephen Hawking and George Ellis show that any plausible general
     relativistic cosmology is singular
   * 1966 - Jim Peebles shows that the hot Big Bang predicts the correct
     helium abundance
   * 1967 - Andrei Sakharov presents the requirements for a
     baryon-antibaryon asymmetry in the universe
   * 1967 - John Bahcall, Wal Sargent, and Maarten Schmidt measure the
     fine-structure splitting of spectral lines in 3C191 and thereby show
     that the fine-structure constant does not vary significantly with time
   * 1968 - Brandon Carter speculates that perhaps the fundamental constants
     of nature must lie within a restricted range to allow the emergence of
     life; first use of the strong anthropic principle
   * 1969 - Charles Misner formally presents the Big Bang horizon problem
   * 1969 - Robert Dicke formally presents the Big Bang flatness problem
   * 1973 - Edward Tryon proposes that the universe may be a large scale
     quantum mechanical vacuum fluctuation where positive mass-energy is
     balanced by negative gravitational potential energy
   * 1974 - Robert Wagoner, William Fowler, and Fred Hoyle show that the hot
     Big Bang predicts the correct deuterium and lithium abundances
   * 1976 - A.I. Shlyakhter uses samarium ratios from the prehistoric
     natural fission reactor in Gabon to show that some laws of physics have
     remained unchanged for over two billion years
   * 1977 - Gary Steigman, David Schramm, and James Gunn examine the
     relation between the primordial helium abundance and number of
     neutrinos and claim that at most five lepton families can exist
   * 1980 - Alan Guth proposes the inflationary Big Bang universe as a
     possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems
   * 2003 - NASA's WMAP takes first detailed "baby picture" of the universe.
     The image reveals the universe is 13.7 billion years old (within one
     percent error) and that the inflationary theory is correct.
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