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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a political movement in Russia that climaxed in
1917 with the overthrow of the Russian Tsar system and led to the
establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until 1991. This movement
was led by Vladimir Lenin based upon the ideas of Karl Marx and marked the
beginning of the spread of communism in the twentieth century.

Brief Chronology leading to Revolution of 1917

Dates are correct for the Julian calendar, which was used in Russia until
1918. It was twelve days behind the Gregorian calendar during the 19th
century and a day further behind during the 20th century.

   * 1855 - Start of reign of Tsar Alexander II
   * 1861 - Emancipation of the serfs
   * 1866-74 - The White Terror
   * 1881 - Alexander II assassinated; start of reign of Alexander III
   * 1883 - First Russian Marxist group formed
   * 1894 - Start of reign of Nicholas II
   * 1898 - First Congress of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP)
   * 1900 - Foundation of Socialist Revolutionary Party (SR)
   * 1903 - Second Congress of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. Split
     (missing text)
   * 1904-5 - Russo-Japanese War
   * 1905 - Russian Revolution/Rebellion.

     January - Bloody Sunday in St Petersburg.
     June - Potemkin uprising at Odessa on the Black Sea
     October - general strike, St Petersburg Soviet formed
          - Imperial agreement on elections to the State Duma - October

   * 1906 - First State Duma. Prime Minister - Petr Stolypin. Agrarian
     reforms begin
   * 1907 - Second State Duma, February - June
   * 1907 - Third State Duma, until 1912
   * 1911 - Stolypin assassinated
   * 1912 - Fourth State Duma, until 1917. Bolshevik - Menshevik split final
   * 1914 - Germany declares war on Russia
   * 1915 - Serious defeats, Nicholas II declares himself CinC. Progressive
     Bloc formed
   * 1916 - Gregory Rasputin killed

More detailed but still brief chronology of Revolution of 1917


     Strikes and unrest in Petrograd


     The February Revolution
     26th -- 50 demonstrators killed in Znamenskaya Square
     27th -- Troops refuse to fire on demonstrators, desertions. Prison,
     court and
          Okhrana buidings set on fire. Garrison joins revolutionaries.
          Petrograd Soviet formed.


     1st -- Order No.1 of the Petrograd Soviet
     2nd -- Nicholas II abdicates. Provisional Government formed, Prince
     Lvov PM


     3rd -- Return of Lenin to Russia. He publishes his April Theses.
     20th -- Miliukov's note published. Provisional Government falls


     5th -- New Provisional Government formed. Kerensky minister of war and


     3rd -- First All-Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd. Closed on 24th
     16th -- Kerensky orders offensive against Austro-Hungarian forces.
     Initial success


     2nd -- Russian offensive ends. Trotsky joins Bolsheviks
     4th -- Anti-government demonstrations in Petrograd
     6th -- German and Austro-Hungarian counter-attack. Russians retreat in
     panic, sacking the town of Tarnopol. Arrest of Bolshevik leaders ordered
     7th -- Lvov resigns. Kerensky is new PM
     22nd -- Trotsky and Lunacharskii arrested


     26th -- Second coalition government ends
     27th -- General Lavr Kornilov failed coup. Kornilov arrested and


     1st -- Russia declared a republic
     4th -- Trotsky and others freed. Trotsky becomes head of Petrograd
     25th -- Third coalition government formed


     10th -- Bolshevik Central Committee meeting approves armed uprising
     11th -- Congress of Soviets of the Northern Region, until 13th
     20th -- First meeting of the Military Revolutionary Committee of
     25th -- MRC directs armed workers and soldiers to capture key buidings
     in Petrograd. Winter Palace attacked at 9.40pm. Kerensky flees
     26th -- Second Congress of Soviets. Mensheviks and right SR delegates
     walk-out in protest at coup. Decrees on peace and land reform. Soviet
     government declared - the Council of People's Commissars; Bolshevik
     dominated with Lenin as chairman
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