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Timeline of Polish history

Dates and most important events in Polish history from prehistoric times up
to the present day.

     Mieszko I assumes rule in Poland
     Christianization of Mieszko I and Poland
     First bishopric in Poland - Poznan
     Mieszko's victorious battle of Cedynia over margrave Hodon
     Death of Mieszko I
     Reign of Boleslaw I Chrobry (the Brave)
     Death of St.Adalbert of Prague during the christianization of Prussians
     The Congress of Gniezno with participation of the Emperor Otto III
     Bishopric founded in Gniezno
     Coronation of Boleslaw I Chrobry as the King of Poland
     Reign of Casimir the Restorer
     People's rebellion and invasion of the Czech prince, Brzetyslav.
     Coronation of Boleslaw the Bold for the king of Poland
     Reign of prince Ladislas
     Reign of prince Boleslav the Wrymouthed (Boleslav Krzywousty)
     War between Boleslav the Wrymouthed and his brother Zbigniew
     Following Boleslaw's death, in accordance with his will, Poland is
     split into five main provinces, one for each of his sons, with the
     senior holding also the "royal" province between Great and Little
     Poland. Beginning of regional disintegration which continues until
     Boleslav the Curly is the senior prince in Cracow
     Konrad of Mazovia asks Teutonic Knights, recently expelled from Hungary
     by Andrew II, to settle in Poland and gives them land in northern
     Mazovia, in addition to any territory they can wrest from the pagan
     Prussians and Lithuanians. The christianization of Prussia begins
     The Mongol invasion cuts a wide swath of destruction through southern
     Poland; Cracow is besieged.
     In July, the host of the Silesian princes is met and routed at Legnica,
     a defeat accompanied by the death of overlord Henryk Pobozny.
     Coronation of Przemysl II for the king of Poland in Gniezno; shortly
     after, he is murdered in a bathhouse.
     Coronation of Waclav II, king of Bohemia, as the king of Poland
     Death of Waclav II, his son Waclav III becomes the king of Poland
     Waclaw III is killed by an assassin while travelling to Cracow to
     inaugurate his reign in Poland
     Reign of Wladyslaw the Elbow High (Wladyslaw Lokietek)
     The Teutonic Knights drive out the Brandenburgians who captured Gdansk,
     but hold the city for themselves. Wladyslaw the Elbow High , caught up
     with the situation in Little Poland, particularly the conspiracy led by
     Albert, the Cracow mayor, cannot intervene.
     Coronation of Wladislaw the Elbow High and reunion of most of the
     Polish lands
     War against the Teutonic Order
     Battle at Plowce
     Peace treaty with the Teutonic Order in Kalisz
     Death of Casimir the Great ends Piast Dynasty
     Reign of Louis I of Hungary
     Personal union with Lithuania following marriage of Polish princess
     Jadwiga with the Grand Duke of Lithuania Wladyslaw Jagiello
     Reign of Wladyslaw Jagiello, beginning of Jagiellonian dynasty in
     Formal christianization of Lithuania
     War with Teutonic Knights
1410 July 15
     Victorious battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) with Teutonic Knights
1411 February
     First peace treaty of Torun with Teutonic Order
     Reign of Wladislaw III
     Battle at Varna against Turkey and death of Wladislaw III
1454 February
     Prussian Confederation of cities and gentry revolts against rule of
     Teutonic Knights, and (March) accepts Polish sovereignty
     Thirteen Years' War of Poland and Prussian Confederation against
     Teutonic Knights
1466 October
     Second Treaty of Thorn: the Teutonic Order cedes western (henceforth
     Royal) Prussia to Poland; eastern (later Ducal) Prussia remains under
     control of the Order, as a Polish fief.
     First Polish printed text (in Cracow)
     Reign of Jan Olbracht
     Administrative union of Lublin creates the Polish-Lithuanian
     commonwealth (Rzeczpospolita)
     Death of Sigismund II, the last king of the Jagiellonian Dynasty
     Election of Henry of Valois as the King of Poland
     Stephen Bthory is the King of Poland
     Polish-Lithuanian forces occupy Moscow
     War with Turkey
     Invasion of Poland by the Army of Charles X of Sweden in the Second
     Northern War, known in Poland as "the Deluge"
1683 September 12
     Polish king John III Sobieski defeats Turkish Army near Vienna
     The Confederation of Bar
     The First Partition of Poland: Austria receives Galicia, the kingdom of
     Prussia gains West Prussia, and Russia gains Vitebsk, Mogilev and Gomel
1791 May 3
     Proclamation of the May Constitution
     The Second Partition of Poland: Russia gains Podolia, eastern Volhynia
     and nost of modern Belarus, while Prussia gains Greater Poland
1794 March
     The national insurrection lead by Tadeusz Kosciuszko
     The Third Partition of Poland: Russia gains Curonia, Lithuania, western
     Belarus and western Volhynia, while Prussia receives the land to the
     north and west of Warsaw, and Austria the land to the south and east of
     the city.
1795 November 25
     The kingdom of Poland comes to an end with the abdication of Stanislaus
     The Grand Duchy of Warsaw is created under French tutelage from the
     territories annexed by Prussia in 1793 and 1795
     The Grand Duchy gains the area annexed by Austria in 1795
     Poland is occupied by Russian troops, bringing the Grand Duchy to an
     Most of the former Grand Duchy (excluding the Poznan and Torun
     districts) become the Kingdom of Poland under the rule of the Tsar of
1830 November 29
     The November Uprising against occupation of Poland
1832 February 26
     Russian-occupied Poland is stripped of its separate administration
1846 February 22
     Krakow Uprising: the city is annexed by Austria in November
1863 January 22
     The January Uprising against occupation of Poland: fighting continues
     into 1864
1914 August
     Outbreak of World War I: Marshal Pilsudski's troops fight with German
     and Austrian troops against Russia
1916 November 5
     Germany and Austria-Hungary proclaim an independent kingdom of Poland,
     in practice under German control
1917 July
     Pilsudski imprisoned at Madgeburg after supporting Polish soldiers who
     refused to swear brotherhood with their german and Austrian
1918 March 3
     Russia signs Treaty of Brest-Litovsk renouncing sovereignty over
     Poland. The rise of independent Second Polish Republic
1918 November 11
     Poland regains independence
     Uprising in Greater Poland region for liberation from German
1920 April 25-October 12
     Polish-Soviet War. Poland avoids Soviet conquest and gains narrow
1921 March 17
     Proclamation of the March Constitution
1921 March 18
     Treaty of Riga
1926 May 12-14
     Coup d'etat by Jozef Pilsudski. He is behind the government that rules
     until 1939
1935 May 12
     Pilsudski dies: Marshal Rydz-Smigly becomes leader of regime
1939 September 1
     Germany invades Poland - the beginning of WWII
1939 September 17
     Soviet troops invade and then occupy eastern Poland
     Soviet Union incarcerates 1.5 million Poles in labor camps and executes
     thousands of prisoners of war before ceding Polish lands to Germans
     All Polish territory comes under Nazi occupation, taking savage toll of
     Polish lives. Poland becomes main killing ground of the Holocaust.
     Polish resistance movements active at home and abroad
     Discovery of Katyn Massacre causes breach between Soviet Union and
     Polish government-in-exile
1944 August 1-October 2
     The Warsaw Uprising. The resistance Polish Home Army receives no Soviet
     assistance and is crushed by Nazis
1944 July 22
     Communist-dominated Polish National Liberation Committee is formed in
     Lublin on land liberated by Soviet and Polish troops
1944 December 31
     National Liberation Committee establishes provisional government
     Red Army liberates Polish territories and establishes
     communist-dominated coalition government
     Communists consolidate political monopoly after rigged elections
     Sovietization occurs, including nationalization of industry and
     business, attacks on organized religion, and imprisonment of opposition
     Stalinist period brings most severe communist rule; adoption of
     Soviet-style constitution; attempted collectivization of agriculture
1948 December 20
     Communist (Workers) Party merges with left wing of Socialist Party as
     Polish United Workers Party (PZPR)
     Worker riots in Poznan result in numerous deaths. In defiance of Soviet
     Union, Wladyslaw Gomulka chosen as Polish Communist Party leader. He
     announces commitment to reform and liberalization of system.
1956 October
     Gomulka appointed leader of United Workers Party
1970 December
     Protests lead to Gomulka's replacement by Edward Gierek
1980 August 31
     victory of Solidarity Trade Union strike led by Lech Walesa in Gdansk,
     a 21-point agreement with the Communist government signed
1981 December 13
     Martial law is proclaimed by the Communist authorities led by prime
     minister General Wojciech Jaruzelski
1983 July
     Lifting of the state of martial law in Poland
1989 June 4
     The first free postwar general elections (with some reservations) in
     Poland return a pro-Solidarity majority
1989 September 12
     The first non-communist-dominated government in Poland since the war
1990 December 9
     Walesa elected President of Poland
     The last Soviet troops leave Poland
1997 April 2
     New Constitution adopted
1999 March 12
     Poland becomes a member of NATO
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