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History of England

The name England refers to the largest and most populous of the three main
divisions of Great Britain, and dates from after the coming of the
Anglo-Saxons. Technically, it is anachronistic to talk of a history of
England before that time. This article admits but ignores that anachronism.

The territory of England has been politically united since the tenth
century. This article centers on that territory; but before the tenth
century and after the accession of James VI of Scotland to the throne of
England in 1603 it becomes increasingly hard to distinguish English from
British history.

Pre-Roman England

Pre-Roman England may be determined by the following periods: (NOTE: There
is, of course, much debate amongst experts in the field. The reader should
keep in mind that all dates are approximations.)

   * 8000-7000 BC Mesolithic Period begins
   * 2500 BC Neolithic Period begins
   * 1600 BC Bronze Age begins
   * 900 BC Immigration of Celtic-speaking peoples
   * 400 BC Early Iron Age

Much evidence remains of pre-Roman England. The Bronze Age Stonehenge around
the 1500s BC, near to the much earlier stone circle at Avebury, is an
extremely large although untypical example. The south of England contains
many iron-age hill forts, surviving as systems of concentric earthworks,
from the huge Maiden Castle in Dorset down to much smaller ones like
Grimsbury Castle in Berkshire. Dartmoor National park in Devon displays much
evidence of its early inhabitants, being beset with many hut-circles,
stone-rows, kistvaens and other visible reminders of the times.

Roman Britain

The Romans, led by Julius Caesar, landed in England in 55 and in 54 BC,
although not as conquerors. It was only a century later, in AD 43, under the
emperor Claudius that the Roman occupation of England came about. In order
to protect themselves from the depredations of the Picts, the inhabitants of
Scotland at that time, the Romans under the emperor Hadrian had a wall built
from east to west, Hadrian's Wall, to defend England.

In classic Roman style, the Romans constructed a highly effective internal
infrastructure to cement their military occupation, building long, straight
roads the length and breadth of the country, most of which centred on
London. For a deeper account of the Roman occupation of Britain, see Roman
Britain. See also the Celtic tribes in the British Isles.

The indigenous, mostly Celtic population were suppressed with customary
Roman efficiency, although numerous, and often extremely bloody, uprisings
occurred all through their occupation, the most notable that of the Iceni
(and other tribes) led by Boudicca, or "Boadicea," in AD 61. The Roman
presence strengthened and weakened over the centuries, but by the 4th
Century AD their hold may best be described as tenuous.

The Saxon Conquest

In the wake of the Romans, who had largely abandoned the islands by 410 in
order to concentrate on more pressing difficulties closer to home, what is
now England was progressively settled by successive, often complementary,
waves of Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians, who had been partly displaced
on mainland Europe. Increasingly the erstwhile Celtic population was pushed
westwards and northwards. The invasion/settlement of England is known as the
Saxon Conquest or the Anglo-Saxon (sometimes "English") settlement (though
"settlement" here does not imply an absence of violence).

In the decisive Battle of Deorham, in 577, the Cornish Celtic people were
separated from the Welsh by the advancing Saxons.

The Venerable Bede (c672 - 735) - Offa (reign 757 - 796) - Alfred the Great
(848 - 900)

Beginning with the raid in 793 on the monastery at Lindisfarne, Vikings made
many raids on England. Starting with plundering raids, the Vikings later
began to settle in England and trade. There are many traces of Vikings in
England today, as for instance many words in the English language; the
similarity of Old English and Old Norse led to much borrowing. One Viking
settlement was in York (which they called Jorvik).

It was not until 936, however, that Athelstan was able to evict the Cornish
from Exeter, and drew a line at the extent of his kingdom, Wessex, at the
River Tamar.

England during the Middle Ages

The defeat of King Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 at the
hands of William of Normandy, later styled William I of England and the
subsequent Norman takeover of Saxon England led to a sea-change in the
history of the small, isolated, island state. William ordered the
compilation of the Domesday Book, which was a survey for tax purposes of the
entire population and their lands and property.

The English middle ages were to be characterised by civil war, international
war, occasional insurrection, and widespread political intrigue amongst the
aristocratic and monarchic elite.

Henry I, also known as Henry Beauclerc (on account of his education), worked
hard to reform and stabilise the country and smooth the differences between
the Anglo-Saxon and Norman societies. The loss of his son, William, in the
wreck of the White Ship in November 1120, was to undermine his reforms. This
problem regarding succession was to cast a long shadow over English history.

The disastrous and incompetent reign of Stephen (1135 - 1154) was to see a
major swing in the balance of power towards the feudal barons, as England
descended inexorably into civil war and lawlessness. In trying to appease
Scottish and Welsh raiders on those borders, he handed over large tracts of
land. Moreover, his conflicts with his cousin, the Empress Maud, whom he had
earlier promised recognition as heir, were his undoing: She bided her time
in France and, in the autumn of 1139, invaded (with her husband, Geoffrey of
Anjou and her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester).

Stephen was captured, and his government fell. Matilda was proclaimed queen
but was soon at odds with her subjects and was expelled from London. The
period of insurrection and civil war that followed continued until 1148,
when Matilda returned to France. Stephen effectively reigned unopposed until
his death in 1154, a year after reaching an accommodation with Henry of
Anjou, (who became Henry II) in which peace between them was guaranteed on
the condition that the throne would be his by succession.

The reign of Henry II represents a reversion in power back from the barony
to the monarchical state; it was also to see a similar redistribution of
legislative power from the Church, again to the monarchical state. This
period also presaged a properly constituted legislation and a radical shift
away from feudalism.

The Black Death, an epidemic of bubonic plague that spread over all Europe,
arrived in England in 1349 and killed perhaps up to a third of the
population. International excursions were invariably against domestic
neighbours: the Welsh, Irish, Scots and the French, with the principal
notable battles being the Battle of Crcy and the Battle of Agincourt. In
addition to this, the final defeat of the uprising led by the Welsh prince,
Owen Glendower, in 1412 by Prince Henry (later to become Henry V) represents
the last major armed attempt by the Welsh to throw off English rule.

Edward III gifted land to powerful noble families, including many people
with Royal blood in their veins. Because land was equivelent to power in
these days, this meant that these powerful men could now try and good their
claim to the Crown. The autocratic and arrogant methods of Richard II only
served to alienate the nobility more, and his forceful dispossession in 1399
by Henry IV lay the seeds for what was to come. In the reign of Henry VI,
which began in 1422, happenings came to a head because of his personal
weaknesses and mental instability. Unable to control the feuding nobles, he
allowed outright civil war to break out. The conflicts are known as the Wars
of the Roses and although the fighting was very sporadic and small, there
was a general breakdown in the authority and power of the Crown. Edward IV
went a little way to restoring this power but the spadework was generally
done by Henry VII

Tudor England

The Wars of the Roses culminated in the eventual victory of the relatively
unknown Henry Tudor, Henry VII, at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485,
where the Yorkist Richard III was slain, and the succession of the
Lancastrian House was ultimately assured. Whilst in retrospect it is easy
for us to say that the Wars of the Roses were now over, Henry VII could
afford no such complacency. Before the end of his reign, two pretenders
would try to wrest the throne from him, aided by remnants of the Yorkist
faction at home and abroad. The first, Lambert Simnel, was defeated at the
Battle of Stoke (the last time an English King fought someone claiming the
Crown) and the second, Perkin Warbeck, was hanged in 1499 after plaguing the
King for a decade.

In 1497, Michael An Gof led Cornish rebels in a march on London. In a battle
over the River Ravensbourne at Deptford Bridge, An Gof fought for varied
issues with their root in taxes. On June 17, 1497 they were defeated, and
Henry VII had showed he could display military prowess when he needed to.
But, like Charles I in the future, here was a King with no wish to go on his
travels again. The rest of his reign was relatively peaceful, despite a
slight worry over the succession when his wife Elizabeth of York died in 1503.

King Henry VIII split with the Roman Catholic Church over a question of his
divorce from Catherine of Aragon. Though his religious position was not at
all Protestant, the resultant schism ultimately led to England distancing
itself almost entirely from Rome. A notable casualty of the schism was
Henry's chancellor, Sir Thomas More. There followed a period of great
religious and political upheaval, which led to the Reformation, the royal
expropriation of the monasteries and much of the wealth of the church. The
Dissolution of the Monasteries had the effect of giving many of the lower
classes (the gentry) a vested interest in the Reformation continuing, for to
halt it would be to revive Monasticism and restore lands which were gifted
to them during the Dissolution.

Henry VIII had three children, all of whom would wear the Crown. The first
to reign was Edward VI of England. Although he showed the piety and
intelligence which was the hallmark of all Tudors, he was only a boy of ten
when he took the throne in 1547. His uncle, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of
Somerset tampered with Henry VIII's will and obtained letters patent giving
him much of the power of a monarch in March of that year. He took the title
of Protector. Whilst some see him as a high-minded idealist, his stay in
power culminated in a crisis in 1549 when many counties of the realm were up
in protest. Kett's Rebellion in Kent and The Prayer Book Rebellion in
Cornwall simultaneously created a crisis during a time when invasion from
Scotland and France were feared. Somerset, disliked by the Regency Council
for his autocratic methods, was removed from power by John Dudley, who is
known as Lord President Northumberland. Northumberland proceded to adopt the
power for himself, but his methods were more concilliatory and the Council
accepted him.

When Edward VI lay dying of tuberculosis in 1553, Northumberland made plans
to place Lady Jane Grey on the throne and marry her to his son, so that he
could remain the power behind the throne. His putsch failed and Mary I took
the throne amidst popular demonstration in her favour in London, which
contemporaries described as the largest show of affection for a Tudor
monarch. Mary, a devout Catholic who had been influenced greatly by the
Catholic King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, proceded to try
and reimpose Catholicism on the realm. This led to 274 burnings of
Protestants, which are recorded especially in John Foxe's Book of Martyrs.
She was highly unpopular among her people, and the Spanish party of her
husband, Philip II caused much resentment around Court. Mary lost Calais,
the last English possession on the Continent, and became increasingly more
unpopular (except among Catholics) as her reign wore on. She successfully
repelled a rebellion by Sir Thomas Wyatt.

The reign of Elizabeth restored a sort of order to the realm following the
turbulence of the reigns of Edward and Mary when she came to the throne
following the death of the latter in 1558. The religious issue which had
divided the country since Henry VIII was in a way put to rest by the
Elizabethan Religious Settlement, which created the Church of England in
much the same form we see it today. Much of Elizabeth's success was in
balancing the interests of the Puritans (extreme Protestants) and "die-hard"
Catholics. She managed to offend neither to a large extent, although she was
forced to clamp down on Catholics towards the end of her reign as the war
with Catholic Spain loomed. She feared Catholics would act as fifth columns
and some attempts on her life had been made by Catholics.

Elizabeth maintained relative internal peace apart from the Revolt of the
Northern Earls in 1569, which was really a sign of how effective she was
being in reducing the power of the old nobility and expanding the power of
her government. One of the most famous events in English martial history
occurred in 1588 when the Spanish Armada was repelled by Sir Francis Drake,
but the war that followed was very costly for England and only ended after
Elizabeth's death. Elizabeth's government did much to consolidate the work
begun under Thomas Cromwell in the reign of Henry VIII, that is in expanding
the role of the government and in effecting common law and administration
throughout the realm of England.

In all, the Tudor period is seen as a decisive one which set up many
important questions which would have to be answered in the next century and
during the English Civil War. These were questions of the relative power of
Monarch and Parliament and to what extent one should control the other. Some
historians think that Thomas Cromwell effected a "Tudor Revolution" in
government and it is certain that Parliament became a lot more important
during his Chancellorship. Other historians say the "Tudor Revolution"
really extended to the end of Elizabeth's reign when the work was all
consolidated. Although the Privy Council, which was the mainstay of Tudor
government, declined after the death of Elizabeth, whilst she was alive it
was very effective.

Religious conflict and the Civil War

An assassination attempt on the Protestant King James I on 5th November
1605, the Gunpowder Plot, by a group of Catholic conspirators, led by Guy
Fawkes, served as further fuel for antipathy in England to the catholic faith.

The English Civil War broke out in 1642, largely as a result of an ongoing
series of conflicts between the then King Charles I and Parliament. The
Parliamentarian army was commanded by Oliver Cromwell, which after much
bloodshed and destruction, was ultimately victorious. The capture and
subsequent trial of Charles I led to his execution by beheading in January
1649 at Whitehall Gate in London.

In 1664/65 England was swept by a visitation of the Great Plague, and then,
in 1666, London, the timbered capital city of England, was swept by fire,
the Great Fire of London, which raged for 5 days, destroying c. 15,000 buildings.

In the late 1600s, the Dutch Protestant William of Orange, William III
replaced the Catholic King James II. This became known as the Glorious
Revolution or 'Bloodless Revolution'. However, in Scotland and Ireland,
Catholics loyal to James II were not so content, and a series of bloody
uprisings resulted. These Jacobite Rebellions continued until the mid-18th
After the 1707 Act of Union, the histories of Britain and England are
largely overlapping entities. Since England was the dominant hegemony, it is
assumed for the purposes of this article that the two are largely

The union of Scotland with England, under the Act of Union, saw Scotland
'united' with England and Wales (Wales had already been assimilated in the
1536 Act of Union by Henry VIII). This was no process of harmonisation, for
Scotland had effectively capitulated to English economic pressure after the
failure of the Darin scheme. This process was lubricated in the Scottish
parliament by the self-interested political manoeuverings of the English
puppets, John Campbell, the 2nd Duke of Argyll and James Douglas, 2nd Duke
of Queensberry.

The Industrial Revolution

The late 18th and early 19th centuries saw considerable social upheaval as a
largely agrarian society was transformed by technological advances and
increasing mechanisation, which was the Industrial Revolution. Much of the
agricultural workforce was uprooted from the countryside and moved into
large urban centres of production, as the steam-based production factories
could undercut the traditional cottage industries, due to economies of scale
and the increased output per worker made possible by the new technologies.
The consequent overcrowding into areas with little supporting infrastructure
saw dramatic increases in the rise of infant mortality (to the extent that
many Sunday schools for pre working age children (5 or 6) had funeral clubs
to pay for each others funeral arrangments), crime, and social deprivation.

The transition to industrialisation was not wholly seamless for workers,
many of whom saw their livelihoods threatened by the process. Of these, some
frequently sabotaged or attempted to sabotage factories. These saboteurs
were known as "Luddites". This view of the Luddite history should also be
set against alternative views, such as that of E. P. Thompson.

Political developments

The Act of Union of 1800 formally assimilated Ireland within the British
political process, and created a new country "The United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland", uniting England, Wales, Ireland and Scotland.

During the early 1800s, the working classes began to find a voice;
concentrations of industry led more or less inevitably to the formation of
guilds and unions, which, although at first suppressed, eventually became
powerful enough to resist. The revolutions which spread like wildfire
throughout mainland Europe during the 1840s did not occur in England, and
Queen Victoria's reign was largely one of consensus, despite huge
disparities in living standards between the few rich and the multitudinous poor.

The Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921 established the Irish Free State (now the
Republic of Ireland) as a separate nation, leaving Northern Ireland as part
of the United Kingdom; its official name became "The United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland".
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