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Timeline of gravitational physics and relativity

   * 1640 - Ismael Bullialdus suggests an inverse-square gravitational force
     law
   * 1665 - Isaac Newton deduces the inverse-square gravitational force law
     from the "falling" of the Moon
   * 1684 - Isaac Newton proves that planets moving under an inverse-square
     force law will obey Kepler's laws
   * 1686 - Isaac Newton uses a fixed length pendulum with weights of
     varying composition to test the weak equivalence principle to 1 part in
     1000
   * 1798 - Henry Cavendish measures the gravitational constant
   * 1846 - Urbain Le Verrier and John Couch Adams, studying Uranus orbit,
     independently prove that another, farther planet must exist. The planet
     will be found at the predicted moment and position, and will be called
     Neptune.
   * 1855 - Leverrier observes a 35" per century excess precession of
     Mercury's orbit and attributes it to another planet, inside Mercury's
     orbit. The planet will never be found.
   * 1876 - William Clifford suggests that the motion of matter may be due
     to changes in the geometry of space
   * 1882 - Simon Newcomb observes a 43 per century excess precession of
     Mercury's orbit
   * 1887 - Albert Michelson and Edward Morley in their experiment do not
     detect the ether drift
   * 1889 - Roland von Eotvos uses a torsion fiber balance to test the weak
     equivalence principle to 1 part in one billion
   * 1893 - Ernst Mach states Mach's principle; first constructive attack on
     the idea of Newtonian absolute space
   * 1905 - Albert Einstein completes his theory of special relativity and
     states the law of mass-energy conservation: E=mc2
   * 1907 - Albert Einstein introduces the principle of equivalence of
     gravitation and inertia and uses it to predict the gravitational
     redshift
   * 1915 - Albert Einstein completes his theory of general relativity. The
     new theory perfectly matches Mercury's strange motions that baffled
     Urbain Le Verrier.
   * 1916 - Albert Einstein shows that the field equations of general
     relativity admit wavelike solutions
   * 1918 - J. Lense and Hans Thirring find the gravitomagnetic precession
     of gyroscopes in the equations of general relativity
   * 1919 - Arthur Eddington leads a solar eclipse expedition which claims
     to detect gravitational deflection of light by the Sun
   * 1921 - T. Kaluza demonstrates that a five-dimensional version of
     Einstein's equations unifies gravitation and electromagnetism
   * 1937 - Fritz Zwicky states that galaxies could act as gravitational
     lenses
   * 1937 - Albert Einstein, Leopold Infeld, and Banesh Hoffman show that
     the geodesic equations of general relativity can be deduced from its
     field equations
   * 1957 - John Wheeler discusses the breakdown of classical general
     relativity near singularities and the need for quantum gravity
   * 1960 - Robert Pound and Glen Rebka test the gravitational redshift
     predicted by the equivalence principle to approximately 1%
   * 1962 - Robert Dicke, Peter Roll, and R. Krotkov use a torsion fiber
     balance to test the weak equivalence principle to 2 parts in 100
     billion
   * 1964 - Irwin Shapiro predicts a gravitational time delay of radiation
     travel as a test of general relativity
   * 1965 - Joseph Weber puts the first Weber bar gravitational wave
     detector into operation
   * 1968 - Irwin Shapiro presents the first detection of the Shapiro delay
   * 1968 - Kenneth Nordtvedt studies a possible violation of the weak
     equivalence principle for self-gravitating bodies and proposes a new
     test of the weak equivalence principle based on observing the relative
     motion of the Earth and Moon in the Sun's gravitational field
   * 1976 - Robert Vessot and Martin Levine use a hydrogen maser clock on a
     Scout Drocket to test the gravitational redshift predicted by the
     equivalence principle to approximately 0.007%
   * 1979 - Dennis Walsh, Robert Carswell, and Ray Weymann discover the
     gravitationally lensed quasar Q0957+561
   * 1982 - Joseph Taylor and Joel Weisberg show that the rate of energy
     loss from the binary pulsar PSR1913+16 agrees with that predicted by
     the general relativistic quadrupole formula to within 5%
   * 2002 - Edward B. Fomalout and Sergei Kopeikin showed that the speed of
     gravity equals the speed of light within the 20% experimental error,
     almost confirming one prediction of loop quantum gravity
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