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Timeline of biology and organic chemistry

   * 320 BC - Theophrastus begins the systematic study of botany
   * 1658 - Jan Swammerdam observes red blood cells under a microscope
   * 1663 - Robert Hooke sees cells in cork using a microscope
   * 1668 - Francesco Redi disproves theories of the spontaneous generation
     of maggots in putrefying matter
   * 1676 - Anton van Leeuwenhoek observes protozoa and calls them
     "animalcules
   * 1677 - Anton van Leeuwenhoek observes spermatozoa
   * 1683 - Anton van Leeuwenhoek observes bacteria
   * 1765 - Lazzaro Spallanzani disproves many theories of the spontaneous
     generation of cellular life
   * 1771 - Joseph Priestley discovers that plants convert carbon dioxide
     into oxygen
   * 1798 - Thomas Malthus discusses human population growth and food
     production in An Essay on the Principle of Population
   * 1801 - Jean Lamarck begins the detailed study of invertebrate taxonomy
   * 1809 - Jean Lamarck proposes an inheritance of acquired characteristics
     theory of evolution
   * 1817 - Pierre-Joseph Pelletier and Joseph-Bienaime Caventou isolate
     chlorophyll
   * 1828 - Karl von Baer discovers the eggs of mammals
   * 1828 - Friedrich Woehler synthesizes urea; first synthesis of an
     organic compound
   * 1836 - Theodor Schwann discovers pepsin in extracts from the stomach
     lining; first isolation of an animal enzyme
   * 1837 - Theodor Schwann shows that heating air will prevent it from
     causing putrefaction
   * 1838 - Matthias Schleiden discovers that all living plant tissue is
     composed of cells
   * 1839 - Theodor Schwann discovers that all living animal tissue is
     composed of cells
   * 1856 - Louis Pasteur states that microorganisms produce fermentation
   * 1858 - Charles R. Darwin and Alfred Wallace independently propose
     natural selection theories of evolution
   * 1858 - Rudolf Virchow proposes that cells can only arise from
     pre-existing cells
   * 1862 - Louis Pasteur convincingly disproves the spontaneous generation
     of cellular life
   * 1865 - Gregor Mendel presents his experiments on the crossbreeding of
     pea plants and postulates dominant and recessive factors
   * 1865 - Friedrich August Kekul von Stradonitz realizes that benzene is
     composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms in a hexagonal ring
   * 1869 - Friedrich Miescher discovers nucleic acids in the nuclei of
     cells
   * 1874 - Jacobus van 't Hoff and Joseph-Achille Le Bel advance a
     three-dimensional stereochemical representation of organic molecules
     and propose a tetrahedral carbon atom
   * 1876 - Oskar Hertwig and Hermann Fol show that fertilized eggs possess
     both male and female nuclei
   * 1884 - Emil Fischer begins his detailed analysis of the compositions
     and structures of sugars
   * 1898 - Martinus Beijerinck uses filtering experiments to show that
     tobacco mosaic disease is caused by something smaller than a bacteria
     which he names a virus
   * 1906 - Mikhail Tsvett discovers the chromatography technique for
     organic compound separation
   * 1907 - Ivan Pavlov demonstrates conditioned responses with salivating
     dogs
   * 1907 - Emil Fischer artificially synthesizes peptide amino acid chains
     and thereby shows that amino acids in proteins are connected by amino
     group-acid group bonds
   * 1911 - Thomas Morgan proposes that Mendelian factors are arranged in a
     line on chromosomes
   * 1926 - James Sumner shows that the urease enzyme is a protein
   * 1928 - Otto Diels and Kurt Alder discover the Diels-Alder cycloaddition
     reaction for forming ring molecules
   * 1929 - Phoebus Levene discovers the sugar deoxyribose in nucleic acids
   * 1929 - Edward Doisy and Adolf Butenandt independently discover estrone
   * 1930 - John Northrop shows that the pepsin enzyme is a protein
   * 1931 - Adolf Butenandt discovers androsterone
   * 1932 - Hans Krebs discovers the urea cycle
   * 1933 - Tadeus Reichstein artificially synthesizes vitamin C; first
     vitamin synthesis
   * 1935 - Rudolf Schoenheimer uses deuterium as a tracer to examine the
     fat storage system of rats
   * 1935 - Wendell Stanley crystallizes the tobacco mosaic virus
   * 1935 - Konrad Lorenz describes the imprinting behavior of young birds
   * 1937 - Theodosius Dobzhansky links evolution and genetic mutation in
     Genetics and the Origin of Species
   * 1938 - A living coelacanth is found off the coast of southern Africa
   * 1940 - Donald Griffin and Robert Galambos announce their discovery of
     sonar echolocation by bats
   * 1942 - Max Delbruck and Salvador Luria demonstrate that bacterial
     resistance to virus infection is caused by random mutation and not
     adaptive change
   * 1944 - Oswald Avery shows that DNA carries the genetic code in
     pneumococci bacteria
   * 1944 - Robert Woodward and William von Eggers Doering synthesize
     quinine
   * 1948 - Erwin Chargaff shows that in DNA the number of guanine units
     equals the number of cytosine units and the number of adenine units
     equals the number of thymine units
   * 1951 - Robert Woodward synthesizes cholesterol and cortisone
   * 1952 - Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase use radioactive tracers to show
     that DNA is the genetic material in bacteriophage viruses
   * 1952 - Fred Sanger, Hans Tuppy, and Ted Thompson complete their
     chromatographic analysis of the insulin amino acid sequence
   * 1952 - Rosalind Franklin uses X-ray diffraction to study the structure
     of DNA and suggests that its sugar-phosphate backbone is on its outside
   * 1953 - James Watson and Francis Crick propose a double helix structure
     for DNA
   * 1953 - Max Perutz and John Kendrew determine the structure of
     hemoglobin using X-ray diffraction studies
   * 1953 - Stanley Miller shows that amino acids can be formed when
     simulated lightning is passed through vessels containing water,
     methane, ammonia, and hydrogen
   * 1955 - Severo Ochoa discovers RNA polymerase enzymes
   * 1955 - Arthur Kornberg discovers DNA polymerase enzymes
   * 1960 - Juan Oro finds that concentrated solutions of ammonium cyanide
     in water can produce the nucleotide organic base adenine
   * 1960 - Robert Woodward synthesizes chlorophyll
   * 1967 - John Gurden uses nuclear transplantation to clone a clawed frog;
     first cloning of a vertebrate
   * 1968 - Fred Sanger uses radioactive phosphorus as a tracer to
     chromatographically decipher a 120 base long RNA sequence
   * 1970 - Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans discover DNA restriction
     enzymes
   * 1970 - Howard Temin and David Baltimore independently discover reverse
     transcriptase enzymes
   * 1972 - Robert Woodward synthesizes vitamin B-12
   * 1972 - Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge propose punctuated
     equilibrium effects in evolution
   * 1974 - Manfred Eigen and Manfred Sumper show that mixtures of
     nucleotide monomers and RNA replicase will give rise to RNA molecules
     which replicate, mutate, and evolve
   * 1974 - Leslie Orgel shows that RNA can replicate without RNA-replicase
     and that zinc aids this replication
   * 1977 - John Corliss, Jack Dymond, Louis Gordon, John Edmond, Richard
     von Herzen, Robert Ballard, Kenneth Green, David Williams, Arnold
     Bainbridge, Kathy Crane, and Tjeerd van Andel discover
     chemosynthetically based animal communities located around submarine
     hydrothermal vents on the Galapagos Rift
   * 1977 - Walter Gilbert and Allan Maxam present a rapid gene sequencing
     technique which uses cloning, base destroying chemicals, and gel
     electrophoresis
   * 1977 - Fred Sanger and Alan Coulson present a rapid gene sequencing
     technique which uses dideoxynucleotides and gel electrophoresis
   * 1978 - Fred Sanger presents the 5,386 base sequence for the virus
     PhiX174; first sequencing of an entire genome
   * 1983 - Kary Mullis invents the polymerase chain reaction
   * 1984 - Alec Jeffreys devises a genetic fingerprinting method
   * 1985 - Harry Kroto, J.R. Heath, S.C. O'Brien, R.F. Curl, and Richard
     Smalley discover the unusual stability of the carbon-60
     Buckminsterfullerene molecule and deduce its structure
   * 1990 - Wolfgang Kratschmer, Lowell Lamb, Konstantinos Fostiropoulos,
     and Donald Huffman discover that Buckminsterfullerene can be separated
     from soot because it is soluble in benzene
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