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A rule of conduct or procedure established by custom, agreement, or authority. The body of rules and principles governing the affairs of a community and enforced by a political authority; a legal system: international law. The condition of social order and justice created by adherence to such a system: a breakdown of law and civilized behavior. A set of rules or principles dealing with a specific area of a legal system: tax law; criminal law. A piece of enacted legislation. What is Law?

Timeline of United States diplomatic history

Timeline of United States Diplomatic History

   * 1776- Declaration of Independence - written by Thomas Jefferson,
     Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman.
   * 1778- Treaty of Alliance (1778)- As a result of Battle of Saratoga,
     France and US agreed to come to each others aid in event of British
     attack from the present time and forever, abrogated in late 1799 after
     XYZ affair.
   * 1789- Jay-Gardoqui Treaty- Spain's exclusive right to navigate
     Mississippi River guaranteed for 30 years, Spain's European and West
     Indian ports open to American shipping, not ratified under Articles of
     Confederation.
   * 1795- Jay Treaty- Promised British subjects would leave Great Lakes
     region within a year, did not deal with impressment nor Loyalists
     debts. Accepted by Senate.
   * early 1800s- Barbary Wars- Algiers, Morocco, Tripoli, and Tunis require
     US to pay protection money, when Tripoli increased sum, Thomas
     Jefferson sent Stephen Decatur and United States Navy to Mediterranean
     Sea, where they forced abandonment of tribute. Other states demanded
     tribute until 1815 when Decatur again prevailed.
   * 1803- Louisiana Purchase Treaty- Robert Livingston the minister to
     France offered to purchase New Orleans, Napoleon counteroffered with
     the whole territory, and for $10,000,000 US agrees to buy Louisiana
     Territory and incorporate into US.
   * 1814- Treaty of Ghent- ended War of 1812 providing status quo ante
     bellum, but as Napoleonic Wars ended, impressment also ended.
   * 1819- Adams-Onis Treaty- Spain ceded Florida to US for $5,000,000,US
     agreed to assume claims against Spain, US gave up claims to Texas.
   * 1823- Monroe Doctrine- British Foreign Minister Canning proposed US
     join England in stating that European powers not be permitted further
     American colonization. Monroe states on December 2 as independent
     American Policy.
   * 1837- Caroline Affair- a band of Canadian rebels took refuge on Navy
     island on Canadian side Niagara River, US sympathizers supplied them
     with aid via steamboat Caroline. On December 29, Canadian forces
     crossed to US and set Caroline ablaze. May 29, 1838 US forces burned
     British steamer Sir Robert Peel while in US.
   * 1838- Aroostook War- disagreement over Northern Boundary of Maine
     resulted in troops being called on both sides, Martin Van Buren
     arranged truce while a commission was established.
   * 1839- Amistad case - Spanish ship Amistad left Havana, Cuba bound for
     Puerto Principe, Cuba with 54 recently captured Africans, who broke
     free and killed the captain. Two passengers whose lives were spared
     deceived the Africans and sailed the ship to Long Island, where it was
     recaptured by the United States Navy, delivered to Connecticut, and
     libeled by the commander of the navy vessel. Various admiralty claims
     were made, including claims by the Spanish crown, alleging that the
     Africans were slaves, but the Africans were adjudicated free men by the
     district court. The district court's decision was affirmed by the
     circuit court of appeals, and further affirmed by the United States
     Supreme Court.
   * 1842 - Webster-Ashburton Treaty-settled Maine New Brunswick border and
     rest of US Canadian border, settling Aroostook War and Caroline Affair.
   * 1848- Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo- settled Mexican-American War, Rio
     Grande as border of Texas, Territory of New Mexico rest of west ceded
     to US, California ceded, US paid Mexico $15,000,000 and assumed
     $3,250,000 liability against Mexico.
   * 1850- Clayton-Bulwer Treaty- US and Britain agreed both nations were
     not to colonize or control any Central American republic, neither
     nation would seek exclusive control of Isthmian canal, if canal built
     protected by both nations for neutrality and security. Any canal built
     open to all nations on equal terms.
   * 1853- Gadsden Purchase- Purchase of 30,000 square miles south of Gila
     River for $10,000,000 for purpose of Railroad line pass through
     Rockies.
   * 1854- Kanagawa Treaty- Millard Fillmore sent Matthew Perry to Tokyo, he
     arrived in 1853 and delivered letter, returned next year with seven
     warships and treaty signed opening two Japanese ports and guaranteeing
     safety of shipwrecked US seamen.
   * 1864- Maximilian Affair- in violation of Monroe Doctrine, French
     Emperor Napoleon III placed Austrian Archduke Maximilian on Mexican
     throne, US in Civil War and could not respond. Benito Juarez deposed
     Maximilian in 1867.
   * 1867- Alaska Purchase- Secretary of State William Seward purchases
     Alaska from [[Russia] for $7,200,000, ridiculed at the time as Sewards
     Folly or Icebox.
   * 1868- Burlingame Treaty- established formal friendly relations with
     China and placed them on Most Favored Nation status, Chinese
     immigration encouraged. Reversed in 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act.
   * 1872- Alabama Claims- during United States Civil War, Confederate
     States of America raider CSS Alabama built in Britain, US claimed
     direct and collateral damage against Britain, awarded $15,500,000 by
     international tribunal.
   * 1891- Baltimore Crisis- Secretary of State James Blaine attempted to
     aid government of Chile in its unsuccessful attempt to quell a
     rebellion. USS Charleston seized rebel ship, in Valparaiso, two sailors
     from USS Baltimore were killed. New govt. rejects protests, after
     Benjamin Harrison sends message to Congress, Chile apologized and paid
     $75,000.
   * 1898- DeLome Letter- in private letter to friend, Spanish minister
     wrote disparagingly of President William McKinley, letter stolen from
     Post Office in Havana and released by Cuban revolutionists.
   * 1901- Hay-Pauncefote Treaty- US reached agreement with British Foreign
     Minister nullifying Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 in return for
     guarantee of open passage for any nation through canal.
   * 1902- Drago Doctrine- Foreign Minister of Argentina announced policy
     that no European power could use force against American nation to
     collect debt, supplanted in 1904 by Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe
     Doctrine.
   * 1903- Big Stick Diplomacy- Theodore Roosevelt says speak softly and
     carry a big stick, applied to assistance of Province of Panama's
     independence movement from Colombia.
   * 1903- Hay-Herran Treaty- with Colombian minister, US acquired renewable
     99 year lease on 6 mile wide strip across Panama for 10,000,000 and
     annual payment. Ratified by US but not by Colombian Senate.
   * 1903- Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty - after Hay-Herran Treaty failed, same
     treaty passed with Panamanian representative, leased strip of land
     increased to 10 miles wide.
   * 1906- Algeciras Conference- Met in Spain at Algeciras with Theodore
     Roosevelt mediating Moroccan dispute between France and Germany,
     essentially in French favor.
   * 1914- ABC Powers- Argentina, Brazil, Chile met in 1914 to avoid a US
     Mexican War over Veracruz incident.
   * 1915- RMS_Lusitania sunk- off Irish coast by submarine under control of
     Captain Schweiger sunk British passenger liner containing troops and
     munitions as well with 128 of Americans on board killed.
   * 1917- Lansing-Ishii Agreement- US recognized Japan had special
     interests in China, particularly in contiguous territory, US had
     objected to Japan assuming German Asian territories.
   * 1918- Fourteen Points- statement of US War aims by Woodrow Wilson,
     served as basis for Treaty of Versailles.
   * 1919- League of Nations- Agreed to at Versailles, but US Senate did not
     permit American entry.
   * 1928- Kellogg-Briand Pact- multilateral treaty outlawing War by moral
     force of 60 signatory nations.
   * 1933- Montevideo Conference- Franklin Roosevelt declared US opposition
     to armed intervention in inter American affairs.
   * 1941- Atlantic Charter- Conferences aboard warships in Placentia Bay
     off Argentia, Newfoundland between FDR and Churchill resulted in (1) no
     territorial gains sought by US or UK, (2) territorial adjustments must
     conform to people involved, (3) people have right to choose own govt.
     (4) trade barriers lowered, (5) there must be disarmament, (6) there
     must be freedom from want and fear (4 Freedoms of FDR), (7) there must
     be freedom of the seas, (8) there must be an association of nations.
   * 1943- Cairo Conference- Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and
     Chiang Kai-Shek met to make decisions about postwar Asia: Japan returns
     all territory, Korea independent.
   * 1943- Casablanca Conference- Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill met
     to plan European strategy. Unconditional Surrender of axis demanded,
     USSR aided, invasion of Sicily and Italy's "soft underbelly" planned.
   * 1944- Bretton Woods Conference- in July in New Hampshire International
     Monetary Fund and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
     (World Bank) created to aid nations devastated by World War II.
   * 1944- Dumbarton Oaks Conference- in August in Washington, DC mansion,
     United Nations was formulated, followed up by San Francisco Conference,
     Security Council veto powers established.
   * 1947- Cold War- Referred to hostility between formerly allied nations
     after World War II, term coined by Herbert Bayard Swope in speech for
     Bernard Baruch at Columbia, South Carolina on April 16.
   * 1947- General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade- Signed in Geneva by 23
     nations including US, membership has since increased, for purpose of
     eliminating trade barriers of all kinds on industrial and agricultural
     goods.
   * 1948- Berlin Blockade- imposed June 24 by Soviet Union blocking traffic
     into western sectors of Berlin, Operation Vittles airlifted aid into
     city, Blockade lifted May 12, 1949.
   * 1952- ANZUS Treaty- Treaty united Australia, US and New Zealand in
     defensive regional pact, resulted from Korean War.
   * 1954- Baghdad Pact- Central Treaty Organization (or CENTO) initiated by
     John Foster Dulles, members were Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, and Turkey, aid
     from US.
   * 1957- Eisenhower Doctrine- stated US would use armed force upon request
     of imminent or actual aggression, applied in Lebanon that year
     successfully.
   * 1961- Alliance for Progress- Agreement extended economic assistance to
     Latin American nations in exchange for land and tax reform, more
     democratic govt., and greater stability.
   * 1961- Bay of Pigs- April 17 trained Cuban refugees invaded Cuba and
     were defeated because of lack of U.S. air support
   * 1961- Berlin Crisis- Soviets give East Germany control over East
     Berlin, in August the Berlin Wall is built to stem tidal wave of
     refugees, In heat of crisis John Kennedy says "Ich bin ein Berliner"
     (apparently translated as "I am a jelly doughnut") to thousands of
     screaming West Berliners.
   * 1962- Cuban Missile Crisis- John F. Kennedy on October 22 announced
     that there existed Soviet missiles in Cuba and demanded their removal
     while imposing an air sea blockade. Nikita Khrushchev sent two letters,
     one belligerent one conciliatory to Kennedy, Kennedy ignores
     belligerent letter and missiles withdrawn on condition that US won't
     invade Cuba, Kennedy demanded onsite inspection, this was not allowed.
   * 1963- Partial Test Ban Treaty- US and USSR agreed not to conduct
     nuclear tests in space, in the atmosphere or underwater. Underground
     tests permitted, signed by 100 nations, not France or People's Republic
     of China.
   * 1978- Camp David Accords (1978)- in August Anwar Sadat, Menachem Begin,
     and Jimmy Carter met to, determine land for peace exchange in Israel.
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