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Timeline of Polish history

Dates and most important events in Polish history from prehistoric times up
to the present day.

c.960
     Mieszko I assumes rule in Poland
966
     Christianization of Mieszko I and Poland
968
     First bishopric in Poland - Poznan
972
     Mieszko's victorious battle of Cedynia over margrave Hodon
992
     Death of Mieszko I
992-1025
     Reign of Boleslaw I Chrobry (the Brave)
997
     Death of St.Adalbert of Prague during the christianization of Prussians
1000
     The Congress of Gniezno with participation of the Emperor Otto III
1000
     Bishopric founded in Gniezno
1025
     Coronation of Boleslaw I Chrobry as the King of Poland
1034-1058
     Reign of Casimir the Restorer
1034-1039
     People's rebellion and invasion of the Czech prince, Brzetyslav.
1076
     Coronation of Boleslaw the Bold for the king of Poland
1079-1102
     Reign of prince Ladislas
1102-1138
     Reign of prince Boleslav the Wrymouthed (Boleslav Krzywousty)
1106-1107
     War between Boleslav the Wrymouthed and his brother Zbigniew
1138
     Following Boleslaw's death, in accordance with his will, Poland is
     split into five main provinces, one for each of his sons, with the
     senior holding also the "royal" province between Great and Little
     Poland. Beginning of regional disintegration which continues until
     1320.
1146-1173
     Boleslav the Curly is the senior prince in Cracow
1226
     Konrad of Mazovia asks Teutonic Knights, recently expelled from Hungary
     by Andrew II, to settle in Poland and gives them land in northern
     Mazovia, in addition to any territory they can wrest from the pagan
     Prussians and Lithuanians. The christianization of Prussia begins
1241
     The Mongol invasion cuts a wide swath of destruction through southern
     Poland; Cracow is besieged.
     In July, the host of the Silesian princes is met and routed at Legnica,
     a defeat accompanied by the death of overlord Henryk Pobozny.
1295
     Coronation of Przemysl II for the king of Poland in Gniezno; shortly
     after, he is murdered in a bathhouse.
1300
     Coronation of Waclav II, king of Bohemia, as the king of Poland
1305
     Death of Waclav II, his son Waclav III becomes the king of Poland
1306
     Waclaw III is killed by an assassin while travelling to Cracow to
     inaugurate his reign in Poland
1306-1333
     Reign of Wladyslaw the Elbow High (Wladyslaw Lokietek)
1308-1309
     The Teutonic Knights drive out the Brandenburgians who captured Gdansk,
     but hold the city for themselves. Wladyslaw the Elbow High , caught up
     with the situation in Little Poland, particularly the conspiracy led by
     Albert, the Cracow mayor, cannot intervene.
1320
     Coronation of Wladislaw the Elbow High and reunion of most of the
     Polish lands
1327-1332
     War against the Teutonic Order
1331
     Battle at Plowce
1343
     Peace treaty with the Teutonic Order in Kalisz
1370
     Death of Casimir the Great ends Piast Dynasty
1370-1382
     Reign of Louis I of Hungary
1385
     Personal union with Lithuania following marriage of Polish princess
     Jadwiga with the Grand Duke of Lithuania Wladyslaw Jagiello
1386-1434
     Reign of Wladyslaw Jagiello, beginning of Jagiellonian dynasty in
     Poland
1387
     Formal christianization of Lithuania
1409-1411
     War with Teutonic Knights
1410 July 15
     Victorious battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) with Teutonic Knights
1411 February
     First peace treaty of Torun with Teutonic Order
1434-1444
     Reign of Wladislaw III
1444
     Battle at Varna against Turkey and death of Wladislaw III
1454 February
     Prussian Confederation of cities and gentry revolts against rule of
     Teutonic Knights, and (March) accepts Polish sovereignty
1454-1466
     Thirteen Years' War of Poland and Prussian Confederation against
     Teutonic Knights
1466 October
     Second Treaty of Thorn: the Teutonic Order cedes western (henceforth
     Royal) Prussia to Poland; eastern (later Ducal) Prussia remains under
     control of the Order, as a Polish fief.
1474
     First Polish printed text (in Cracow)
1492-1501
     Reign of Jan Olbracht
1569
     Administrative union of Lublin creates the Polish-Lithuanian
     commonwealth (Rzeczpospolita)
1572
     Death of Sigismund II, the last king of the Jagiellonian Dynasty
1573
     Election of Henry of Valois as the King of Poland
1575
     Stephen Bthory is the King of Poland
1610
     Polish-Lithuanian forces occupy Moscow
1620
     War with Turkey
1655-1660
     Invasion of Poland by the Army of Charles X of Sweden in the Second
     Northern War, known in Poland as "the Deluge"
1683 September 12
     Polish king John III Sobieski defeats Turkish Army near Vienna
1768
     The Confederation of Bar
1772
     The First Partition of Poland: Austria receives Galicia, the kingdom of
     Prussia gains West Prussia, and Russia gains Vitebsk, Mogilev and Gomel
1791 May 3
     Proclamation of the May Constitution
1793
     The Second Partition of Poland: Russia gains Podolia, eastern Volhynia
     and nost of modern Belarus, while Prussia gains Greater Poland
1794 March
     The national insurrection lead by Tadeusz Kosciuszko
1795
     The Third Partition of Poland: Russia gains Curonia, Lithuania, western
     Belarus and western Volhynia, while Prussia receives the land to the
     north and west of Warsaw, and Austria the land to the south and east of
     the city.
1795 November 25
     The kingdom of Poland comes to an end with the abdication of Stanislaus
     II
1807
     The Grand Duchy of Warsaw is created under French tutelage from the
     territories annexed by Prussia in 1793 and 1795
1809
     The Grand Duchy gains the area annexed by Austria in 1795
1813
     Poland is occupied by Russian troops, bringing the Grand Duchy to an
     end
1815
     Most of the former Grand Duchy (excluding the Poznan and Torun
     districts) become the Kingdom of Poland under the rule of the Tsar of
     Russia.
1830 November 29
     The November Uprising against occupation of Poland
1832 February 26
     Russian-occupied Poland is stripped of its separate administration
1846 February 22
     Krakow Uprising: the city is annexed by Austria in November
1863 January 22
     The January Uprising against occupation of Poland: fighting continues
     into 1864
1914 August
     Outbreak of World War I: Marshal Pilsudski's troops fight with German
     and Austrian troops against Russia
1916 November 5
     Germany and Austria-Hungary proclaim an independent kingdom of Poland,
     in practice under German control
1917 July
     Pilsudski imprisoned at Madgeburg after supporting Polish soldiers who
     refused to swear brotherhood with their german and Austrian
     counterparts
1918 March 3
     Russia signs Treaty of Brest-Litovsk renouncing sovereignty over
     Poland. The rise of independent Second Polish Republic
1918 November 11
     Poland regains independence
1918-1919
     Uprising in Greater Poland region for liberation from German
     administration
1920 April 25-October 12
     Polish-Soviet War. Poland avoids Soviet conquest and gains narrow
     victory
1921 March 17
     Proclamation of the March Constitution
1921 March 18
     Treaty of Riga
1926 May 12-14
     Coup d'etat by Jozef Pilsudski. He is behind the government that rules
     until 1939
1935 May 12
     Pilsudski dies: Marshal Rydz-Smigly becomes leader of regime
1939 September 1
     Germany invades Poland - the beginning of WWII
1939 September 17
     Soviet troops invade and then occupy eastern Poland
1940-41
     Soviet Union incarcerates 1.5 million Poles in labor camps and executes
     thousands of prisoners of war before ceding Polish lands to Germans
1941-44
     All Polish territory comes under Nazi occupation, taking savage toll of
     Polish lives. Poland becomes main killing ground of the Holocaust.
     Polish resistance movements active at home and abroad
1943
     Discovery of Katyn Massacre causes breach between Soviet Union and
     Polish government-in-exile
1944 August 1-October 2
     The Warsaw Uprising. The resistance Polish Home Army receives no Soviet
     assistance and is crushed by Nazis
1944 July 22
     Communist-dominated Polish National Liberation Committee is formed in
     Lublin on land liberated by Soviet and Polish troops
1944 December 31
     National Liberation Committee establishes provisional government
1945
     Red Army liberates Polish territories and establishes
     communist-dominated coalition government
1947
     Communists consolidate political monopoly after rigged elections
1947-49
     Sovietization occurs, including nationalization of industry and
     business, attacks on organized religion, and imprisonment of opposition
     leaders
1948-56
     Stalinist period brings most severe communist rule; adoption of
     Soviet-style constitution; attempted collectivization of agriculture
1948 December 20
     Communist (Workers) Party merges with left wing of Socialist Party as
     Polish United Workers Party (PZPR)
1956
     Worker riots in Poznan result in numerous deaths. In defiance of Soviet
     Union, Wladyslaw Gomulka chosen as Polish Communist Party leader. He
     announces commitment to reform and liberalization of system.
1956 October
     Gomulka appointed leader of United Workers Party
1970 December
     Protests lead to Gomulka's replacement by Edward Gierek
1980 August 31
     victory of Solidarity Trade Union strike led by Lech Walesa in Gdansk,
     a 21-point agreement with the Communist government signed
1981 December 13
     Martial law is proclaimed by the Communist authorities led by prime
     minister General Wojciech Jaruzelski
1983 July
     Lifting of the state of martial law in Poland
1989 June 4
     The first free postwar general elections (with some reservations) in
     Poland return a pro-Solidarity majority
1989 September 12
     The first non-communist-dominated government in Poland since the war
1990 December 9
     Walesa elected President of Poland
1992
     The last Soviet troops leave Poland
1997 April 2
     New Constitution adopted
1999 March 12
     Poland becomes a member of NATO
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