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Conventional Egyptian chronology

This is a conventional chronology of the rulers of ancient Egypt, taking
into account well accepted developments during the 20th century but not
including any of the major revision proposals that have also been made in
that time. See also Egyptian chronology, Pharaoh.

Even within a single work, often archeologists will offer several possible
dates or even several whole chronologies as possibilities. Consequently,
there may be discrepancies between dates shown here and in articles on
particular rulers. Often there are also several possible spellings of the names.

The dates of Dynasties 1 to 10 are from Baines and Malek, Atlas of Ancient
Egypt (Oxford, 1980).

The dates of Dynasties 11 to 20 are from Kitchen, ?The Basics of Egyptian
Chronology in Relation to the Bronze Age?, in Astrom (ed) High, Middle or
Low (Gothengurg, 1987), taking his low chronology.

The dates of Dynasties 21 to 26 are from Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period
in Egypt (1973, Warminster).

(This information has been supplemented from The Oxford History of Ancient
Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw (Oxford, 2000), and Digital Egypt for
Universities, which was developed by The Petrie Museum of Egyptian
Archaeology.)

It should be noted that there is a 60 year discrepancy between the dates
proposed by these two authors. There is no attempt to remove this in the
combined chronology presented below, which is the ?Conventional Chronology?
that is quoted by David Rohl in A Test of Time (1995, Century).

All dates BC

Early Dynastic Period

Possible Kings of Dynasty 0

   * Crocodile
   * Iry-Hor
   * Ka
   * Scorpion
   * Narmer

1st Dynasty 2920-2770

   * Aha / Menes
   * Djer
   * Djet
   * Queen Merytneit
   * Den
   * Anedjib
   * Semerkhet
   * Kaa

2nd Dynasty 2770-2650

   * Hetepsekhemwy
   * Reneb
   * Ninetjer
   * Sekhemib
   * Peribsen
   * Sened
   * Weneg
   * Khasekhem
   * Khasekhemwy

Position uncertain

   * Sneferka
   * Ba (two different writings, possibly two separate kings)

Old Kingdom

3rd Dynasty

   * Netjerkhet (Djoser)
   * Sekhemkhet
   * Khaba
   * Sanakht (Nebka ?)
   * Huni (Horus Qahedjet ?)

4th Dynasty

   * Snefru 2575-2551
   * Khufu (Cheops) 2551-2528
   * Djedefre 2528-2520
   * Khafre (Chephren) 2520-2494
   * Nebka (Bikheris of later Greek-language sources)
   * Menkhaure (Mycerinus) 2490-2472
   * Shepseskaf 2472-2467
   * Thampthis (in later Greek-language sources)

5th Dynasty

   * Userkhaf 2465-2458
   * Sahure 2458-2446
   * Neferirkare Kakai 2446-2426
   * Shepseskare Ini 2426-2419
   * Neferefre 2419-2416
   * Niuserre Izi 2416-2392
   * Menkauhore 2396-2388
   * Djedkare Izezi 2388-2356
   * Wenis (Unas) 2356-2323

6th Dynasty

   * Teti 2323-2291
   * Pepy I (Meryre) 2289-2255
   * Merenre Nemtyemzaf 2255-2246
   * Pepy II (Neferkare) 2246-2152

First Intermediate Period

7th Dynasty

In the kinglist summaries from the third century BC historian Manetho, this
is a group of 70 kings ruling 70 days: there is no evidence for this - it
may be a later literary metaphor for chaos at the end of the Sixth Dynasty,
chaos for which there is also no direct contemporary evidence.

8th Dynasty

   * Netjerikare
   * Menkare
   * Neferkare
   * Neferkare Nebi
   * Djedkare Shemai
   * Neferkare Khendu
   * Merenhor
   * Neferkamin
   * Nikare
   * Neferkare Tereru
   * Neferkahor
   * Neferkare Pepyseneb
   * Neferkamin Anu
   * Qakare Ibi
   * Neferkawre Kha...
   * Neferkawhor Khuwihap
   * Neferirkare

Kings with Unknown Position

   * Sekhemkare
   * Wadjkare
   * Ity
   * Iymhotep
   * Hotep ...re
   * Khui
   * Isu
   * Iytjenu

9th and 10th Dynasty 2135-1986

   * Khety (I)
   * Neferkare
   * Khety (II)
   * Senen...
   * Khety (III)
   * Khety (IV)
   * Shed...y
   * H...
   * Wahkare Khety
   * Se...re Khety
   * Nebkawre Khety
   * Meryibre Khety
   * Merykare

11th Dynasty

   * Montuhotep I 2080-2074
   * Inytoyef I (Sehertawy) 2074-2064
   * Inyotef II (Wahankh) 2064-2015
   * Inyotef III (Nakhtnebtepnefer) 2015-2007
   * Montuhotep II 2007-1986

Middle Kingdom

11th Dynasty (continued)

   * Montuhotep II (Nebhepetre) 1986-1956
   * Montuhotep III (Sankhkare) 1956-1944
   * Montuhotep IV (Nebtawyre) 1944-1937

Unknown Position

   * Intef Qakare
   * Iyibkhenetre
   * Segersen

12th Dynasty

   * Amenemhat I (Sehetepibre) 1937-1908
   * Senuseret I (Kheperkare) 1917-1872
   * Amenemhat II (Nubkaure) 1875-1840
   * Senuseret II (Khakheperre) 1842-1836
   * Senuseret III (Khakaure) 1836-1817
   * Amenemhat III (Nimaartre) 1817-1772
   * Amenemhat IV (Maakherure) 1772-1763
   * Neferusobek (Sobekkare) 1763-1759

Second Intermediate Period

13th Dynasty

21 kings for about 63 years then

   * Neferhotep 1696-1685
   * Sihathor 1685-1685
   * Sobekhotep IV 1685-1678
   * Sobekhotep V 1678-1674
   * Iaib 1674-1664
   * Ay 1664-1641

Then 6 more kings for about 20 years

14th Dynasty

About 76 minor kings of the Delta, contemporary with the second half of the
13th dynasty.

15th Dynasty 1633-1525

   * Salitis
   * Bnon
   * Apachnan (Khyan)
   * Iannas (Ianassi son of Kyan)
   * Apophis (Auserre Apepi)
   * Assis

16th Dynasty

32 minor kings contemporary with the 15th and 17th dynasties.

17th Dynasty 1606-1539

About 15 kings in all, contemporary with the 15th dynasty, the last three
being

   * Tao I (Senakhtenre)
   * Tao II (Sekenenre)
   * Kamose (Wadjkheperre)

New Kingdom

18th Dynasty

   * Ahmose (Nebpehtyre) 1539-1514
   * Amenotep I (Djeserkare) 1514-1493
   * Thutmose I (Akheperkare) 1493-1481
   * Thutmose II (Akheperenre) 1481-1479
   * Hatshepsut (Maatkare) 1473-1458
   * Thutmose III (Menkheperre) 1479-1425
   * Amenhotep II (Akheperure)
   * Thutmose IV (Menkheperure)
   * Amenhotep III (Nubmaatre) 1382-1344
   * Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten (Neferkheperure-waenre) 1352-1336
   * Neferneferuaten (Ankhkheperure - possibly Nefertiti) 1341-1337
   * Smenkhkare (Ankhkheperure) 1337-1336
   * Tutankhamun (Nebkheperure) 1336-1327
   * Ay (Kheperkheperure) 1327-1323
   * Horemheb (Djeserkheperure) 1323-1295

19th Dynasty

   * Ramesses I (Menpehtyre) 1295-1294
   * Seti I (Manmaatre) 1294-1297
   * Ramesses II (Usermaatre-setepenre) 1200-1194
   * Merenptah (Baenre-hotephirmaat) 1213-1203
   * Amenmesse (Menmire) 1203-1200
   * Seti II (Userkheperure-setepenre) 1194-1188
   * Tausert (Sitre-meritamun) 1188-1186

20th Dynasty

   * Setnakht (Userkhaure-meryamun) 1186-1184
   * Ramesses III (Usermaatre-meryamun) 1184-1153
   * Ramesses IV (Hekamaatre-setepenamun) 1153-1147
   * Ramesses V (Usermaatre-sekheperenre) 1147-1153
   * Ramesses VI (Nebmaatre-meryamun) 1143-1136
   * Ramesses VII (Usermaatre-setepenre) 1136-1129
   * Ramesses VIII (Usermaatre-akhenamun) 1129-1126
   * Ramesses IX (Neferkare-setepenre) 1126-1108
   * Ramesses X (Khepermaatre-setepenre) 1108-1099
   * Ramesses XI (Menmaatre-setepenptah) 1099-1069

Third Intermediate Period

Tanite 21st Dynasty

   * Smendes (Hedjkheperre-setepenre) 1069-1043
   * Amenemnisu (Neferkare-hekawaset) 1043-1039
   * Psusennes I (Akheperre-setepenamun) 1039-991
   * Amenemopet (Usermaatre-setepenamun) 993-984
   * Osorkon the Elder (Akheperre-setepenre) 984-978
   * Stamun (Netjerkheperre-setepenre) 978-959
   * Har-Psusennes II (Tjekheperre-setepenre) 959-945

Theban 21st Dynasty

   * Herihor 1080-1074
   * Piankh 1074-1070
   * Pinudjem I 1070-1032
   * Masaharta 1054-1046
   * Djedkonsefankh 1046-1045
   * Mankheperre 1045-992
   * Smendes II 992-990
   * Pinudjem II 990-969
   * Psusennes III 969-945

22nd Dynasty

   * Shoshenk I (Hedjkheperre-setepenre) 945-924
   * Osorkon I (Sekhemkheperre-setepenre) 924-889
   * Shoshenk II (Hekakheperre-setepenre) 890-889
   * Takelot I (Hedjkheperre-setepenre) 889-874
   * Osorkon II (Usermaatre-setepenamun) 874-850
   * Harsiese (Hedjkheperre-setepenamun) 870-860
   * Takelot II (Hedjkheperre-setepenre) 850-825
   * Shoshenk III (Usermaatre-setepenre/amun) 825-773
   * Pimay (Usermaatre-setepenre/amun) 773-767
   * Shoshenk V (Akheperre) 767-730
   * Osorkon IV (Akheperre-setepenamun) 730-715

23rd Dynasty

   * Pedubast (Usermaatre-setepenamun) 818-793
   * Iuput I 804-803
   * Shoshank IV (Usermaatre-meryamun) 793-787
   * Osorkon III (Usermaatre-setepenamun) 787-759
   * Takelot III (Usermaatre-setepenamun) 764-757
   * Rudamun (Usermaatre-setepenamun) 757-754
   * Iuput II (Usermaatre-setepenamun) 754-720
   * Shoshenk IV (Wasneterre-setepenre) 720-715

24th Dynasty

   * Tefnakht (Shepsesre) 727-720
   * Bekenranef (Wahkare) 720-715

25th Dynasty

   * Alara 780-760
   * Kashta (Maatre) 760-747
   * Plankhy or Piye (Usermaatre/Sneferre) 747-716
   * Shabaka (Neferkare) 716-702
   * Taharka (Nefertemkhure) 690-664
   * Tantamani (Bakare) 664-656

26th Dynasty

   * Ameris 715-695
   * Tefnakht I 695-688
   * Nekauba 688-672
   * Necho I (Menkheperre) 672-664

Late Period

26th Dynasty (continued)

   * Psamtek I (Wahibre) 664-610
   * Necho II (Wehemibre) 610-595
   * Psamtek II (Neferibre) 595-589
   * Apries (Haaibre) 589-570
   * Amasta II (Khnemibre) 570-526
   * Psamtek III (Ankhkaenre) 526-525
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