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A rule of conduct or procedure established by custom, agreement, or authority. The body of rules and principles governing the affairs of a community and enforced by a political authority; a legal system: international law. The condition of social order and justice created by adherence to such a system: a breakdown of law and civilized behavior. A set of rules or principles dealing with a specific area of a legal system: tax law; criminal law. A piece of enacted legislation. What is Law?

Lists of incumbents

These are lists of incumbents, i.e. lists of people in various offices and
positions, including heads of states or of subnational entities (in no
particular order).

Current incumbents may also be found in the countries' articles (main
article and "Politics of"), recent changes on 2003 in politics, and past
leaders on 1957 (the first year-page to include them), lists of people
associated with the American Civil War, World War I, World War II.

Various articles group lists by topic: e.g. abdication, assassinated
persons, cabinet, chancellor, ex-monarchs (20th century), first names, head
of government, Head of State, mayor, military commanders, minister, order of
precedence, president, prime minister, Reichstag participants (1792),
Secretary of State.

Religious leaders

   * Archbishop of Canterbury
   * Bishops
   * Caliphate
   * Coptic Popes
   * Dalai Lama
   * Grand Masters of the Teutonic Knights
   * Maronite Patriarchs
   * Moscow Metropolitans and Patriarchs
   * Orthodox Patriarchs of Alexandria
   * Patriarchs of Constantinople
   * Latin Patriarch of Constantinople
   * Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem
   * Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
   * List of Patriarchs of Antioch
   * Greek Patriarch of Antioch
   * Syrian Patriarch of Antioch
   * Popes

Heads of International Organizations

   * President of the European Commission
   * United Nations Secretary General
   * United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
   * International Monetary Fund Managing Directors
   * NATO Secretaries General
   * FIFA presidents
   * International Olympic Committee Presidents

Heads of State or Government (Defunct Entities)

Ancient World

   * Akkad
        o Kings of Akkad
   * Assyria
        o Kings of Assyria
   * Babylon
        o Kings of Babylon
   * Dacia
        o Dacian kings
   * Egypt
        o Pharaohs
   * Levant
        o Kings of Israel and Judah
   * Hittites
        o Kings of the Hittites
   * Osroene
   * Persia
        o Kings of Persia
             + Achaemenid dynasty
             + Seleucid dynasty
             + Sassanid dynasty
   * Macedon
        o Kings of Macedon
   * Sparta
        o Kings of Sparta
   * Sumer
        o Sumerian king list
   * Rome
        o Kings of Rome
        o Republican Roman Consuls, Early Imperial Roman Consuls, and Late
          Imperial Roman Consuls
        o Roman Emperors
        o Barbarian kings of Rome
        o Byzantine Emperors
   * Dark Ages
   * Denmark (Danmark)
        o List of dubious Danish kings
   * England (Angleland)
        o Kings of the Isle of Man and the Isles
        o Kings of the Isle of Man
        o Kings of East Anglia
        o Kings of Essex
        o Kings of Kent
        o Kings of Mercia
        o Kings of Northumbria
        o Kings of Sussex
        o Kings of Wessex
   * Scotland
        o Kings of Dalriada
        o Kings of the Picts
        o Kings of the Isles
   * Sweden (Svearike)
        o Kings of Svitjod
        o Kings of Vendel
        o Kings of Gtarike
        o Kings of Vstergtland
        o Kings of stergtland

Middle Ages

   * Ostrogothic rulers
   * Visigoth
   * Hasdingii kings
   * Frankish Kings
   * Caliphates
        o Umayyad Caliphs
        o Abbasid Caliphs
        o Fatimid Caliphs
   * French monarchs
        o Dukes of Normandy
        o Counts and Dukes of Anjou
   * German Kings and Emperors
   * Archbishop of Riga
   * Rulers of Kievan Rus'
   * Kings of Easter Island
   * Crusader States
        o Latin Emperors of Constantinople
        o Kings of Cyprus
        o Kings of Jerusalem
        o Kings of Thessalonica, Kingdom of Thessalonica
        o Princes of Achaea
        o Princes of Antioch
        o Dukes of Athens
        o Counts of Edessa
        o Counts of Tripoli
   * The Table of Chinese monarchs
   * Low Countries (Netherlands, Belgium)
        o Duke of Brabant
        o Count of Flanders
        o Dukes and counts of Guelders
        o Count of Holland
        o Bishop of Utrecht
   * Dukes of Pomerania

Heads of State or Government (modern entities)

Africa

   * Burundi
        o Presidents of Burundi
   * Comoros
        o Presidents of Comoros
   * Ethiopia
   * Kongo
   * Liberia
        o Presidents of Liberia
   * South Africa
        o Governors-General of South Africa
        o Presidents of South Africa
        o Prime Ministers of South Africa

America, Central and the Caribbean

   * Belize
        o Prime Minister of Belize
   * Bermuda
        o Governor of Bermuda
   * Costa Rica
        o Presidents of Costa Rica
   * El Salvador
   * Guatemala
        o President of Guatemala
   * Honduras
   * Nicaragua
        o Presidents of Nicaragua
   * Panama
   * British Virgin Islands
        o Presidents of the British Virgin Islands
        o Governors of the British Virgin Islands
        o Administrators of the British Virgin Islands
   * Jamaica
        o Prime Minister of Jamaica

America, North

   * Canada
        o Governors General of Canada
        o Cabinet of Canada
             + Prime Ministers of Canada (1867-)
             + Deputy Prime Ministers of Canada (1977-)
             + Ministers of Finance (1867-)
             + Ministers of Foreign Affairs (1995-)
             + Ministers for International Cooperation (1996-)
             + Ministers for International Trade (1983-)
             + Secretaries of State for External Affairs (1909-1995)
        o Members of the Canadian House of Commons
        o Canadian Senators
        o Canadian order of precedence
   * Mexico
        o Presidents of Mexico
   * United States
        o President of the United States
             + Vice President of the United States
             + United States Presidential line of succession
        o Members of the United States Senate (current)
        o Members of the United States Senate (historic)
        o Members of the United States House of Representatives (historic)
        o Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States (historic)
             + Chief Justice of the United States
        o United States Cabinet
             + Secretary of State
             + Secretary of the Treasury
             + Secretary of Defense (prior to 1947, Secretary of War and
               Secretary of the Navy)
             + Attorney General (head of the Department of Justice)
             + Secretary of Homeland Security
             + Secretary of the Interior
             + Secretary of Agriculture
             + Secretary of Commerce
             + Secretary of Labor (before Secretary of Commerce and Labor)
             + Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
             + Secretary of Transportation
             + Secretary of Health and Human Services (before united with
               Education in the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare)
             + Secretary of Education
             + Secretary of Energy
             + Secretary of Veterans Affairs
        o Other Executive Department Positions
             + Director of the CIA
             + Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency
        o United States order of precedence
        o Hawaiian monarchy

America, South

   * Argentina
        o Presidents of Argentina
   * Bolivia
        o Presidents of Bolivia
   * Brazil
        o Brazilian monarchs
        o Presidents of Brazil
   * Chile
        o Presidents of Chile
   * Colombia
        o Presidents of Colombia
   * Ecuador
        o Presidents of Ecuador
   * Uruguay
        o Presidents of Uruguay
   * Paraguay
        o Presidents of Paraguay
   * Peru
        o Presidents of Peru
   * Venezuela
        o Presidents of Venezuela

Asia

   * Afghanistan
        o Afghan Transitional Administration personnel
        o Leaders of Afghanistan
        o Kings of Afghanistan
   * Bangladesh
        o Presidents of Bangladesh
        o Prime Ministers of Bangladesh
   * Bhutan
        o Kings of Bhutan
   * China
        o Chinese sovereigns
        o Table of Chinese monarchs
             + Qing Dynasty
        o President of the People's Republic of China
        o President of the Republic of China
        o Governor of Hong Kong
        o Chief Executive of Hong Kong
        o Governor of Macau
        o Governors and Chairpersons of Taiwan
   * India
        o Prime Minister of India
        o President of India
   * Indonesia
        o President of Indonesia
   * Japan
        o Rulers of Japan (Emperors, Regents, Shoguns and Prime Ministers)
        o Emperors of Japan
        o Prime Minister of Japan
        o Ashikaga Shogunate
        o Kamakura Shogunate
        o Tokugawa shogunate
   * Korea
        o Rulers of Korea
        o North Korea
             + Presidents of North Korea
             + Premiers of North Korea
        o South Korea
             + Presidents of South Korea
   * Mongolia
        o Grand Khan of Mongolia
   * Nepal
        o Kings of Nepal
   * Philippines
        o President of the Philippines
   * Syria
        o Kings of Syria
   * Taiwan (Republic of China)
        o See China entry above.
   * Tajikistan
        o Presidents of Tajikistan
   * Thailand
        o Prime Ministers of Thailand
        o Chakri dynasty
   * Turkey / Ottoman Empire
        o Presidents of Turkey
        o Ottoman sultans
   * Vietnam
        o Nguyen Dynasty

Australasia

   * Australia
        o Governor-General of Australia
        o Prime Minister of Australia
   * Nauru
        o Presidents of Nauru
   * New Zealand
        o Governor-General of New Zealand
        o Prime Minister of New Zealand
        o Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand
   * Papua New Guinea
        o Prime Ministers of Papua New Guinea

Europe

   * Albania
        o Prime Ministers of Albania
        o Presidents of Albania
        o Kings of Albania
        o Princes of Albania
   * Andorra
        o Andorran Heads of Government
        o Co-Princes of Andorra
   * Austria
        o Chancellor of Austria
        o Federal Presidents of Austria
        o Habsburg
        o Babenberg
   * Belgium
        o Belgian monarchs
        o Prime Ministers of Belgium
        o Governors of the Habsburg Netherlands
   * Bulgaria
        o Bulgarian monarchs
        o Presidents of Bulgaria
        o Prime Ministers of Bulgaria
   * Croatia
        o Prime Ministers of Croatia
        o Monarchs of Croatia
   * Czech Republic
        o Dukes and Kings of Bohemia
   * Denmark
        o Danish monarchs
        o Prime Ministers of Denmark
   * Estonia
        o Estonian rulers
   * Finland
        o Prime Ministers of Finland
        o President of Finland
        o Finnish rulers
   * France
        o Foreign Ministers of France
        o French monarchs
        o Presidents of France
        o Prime Ministers of France
        o Foreign Ministers of France
   * Germany
        o Chancellors of Germany
        o Presidents of Germany
        o Ministers
        o German Kings and Emperors
        o Kings of Prussia
        o Prime Ministers of Prussia
        o Rulers of Hanover
        o Rulers of Bavaria
        o Rulers of Wrttemberg
        o Rulers of Saxony
        o Rulers of Baden
        o Rulers of Hesse
        o Electors of Brandenburg, Dukes of Prussia, etc
        o Counts, Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
   * Greece
        o Prime Ministers of Greece
        o Kings of Greece (Kings of the Hellenes)
   * Greenland
        o Prime Ministers of Greenland
        o Governors of Greenland
        o Inspectors of Greenland
   * Hungary
        o Hungarian rulers
   * Iberian peninsula: Spain, Portugal
        o Kings of Aragon and Counts of Barcelona
        o Asturian monarchs
        o Kings of Castile and of Leon
        o Kings of Navarre
        o Spanish monarchs
        o Prime Ministers of Spain
        o Portuguese monarchs
        o Prime Ministers of Portugal
        o Presidents of Portugal
   * Iceland
        o Presidents of Iceland
        o Prime Ministers of Iceland
        o Icelandic rulers
   * Ireland, Republic of
        o Presidents of Ireland
        o Taoiseach of Ireland (prime minister)
   * Italy
        o Presidents of Italy
        o Prime Ministers of Italy
        o Tuscany
             + Rulers of Tuscany
        o Milan
             + Rulers of Milan
        o Monarchs of Naples and Sicily
        o Dukes of Savoy, Kings of Sardinia, and Kings of Italy from 1861
        o Doges of Venice
        o Dukes of Parma
        o Dukes of Modena
   * Latvia
        o Presidents of Latvia
   * Liechtenstein
        o Princes of Liechtenstein
        o Liechtenstein Heads of Government
   * Lithuania
        o Presidents of Lithuania
   * Luxembourg
        o Prime Ministers of Luxembourg
        o Grand Dukes of Luxembourg
             + Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg
   * Monaco
        o Princes of Monaco
   * Netherlands
        o Dutch monarchy
        o Prime Ministers of the Netherlands
        o Governors of the Habsburg Netherlands
   * Norway
        o Norwegian monarchs
             + Succession to the Norwegian Throne
        o Norwegian Prime Ministers
   * Poland
        o Polish rulers, Timeline of rulers of Poland
        o Polish Prime Ministers
        o Presidents of Poland
   * Portugal
        o see Iberian peninsula above
   * Romania
        o Prime Ministers of Romania
        o Presidents of Romania
        o Kings of Romania
        o Rulers of Wallachia
        o Rulers of Moldavia
        o Rulers of Transylvania
   * Russia and the Soviet Union
        o Tsars
        o Leaders of the Soviet Union
        o President of Russia
   * San Marino
        o Captain Regents of San Marino
   * Spain
        o see Iberian peninsula above
   * Slovakia
   * Slovenia
        o Presidents of Slovenia
   * Sweden
        o Swedish monarchs
        o Prime Minister of Sweden
   * Switzerland
        o Members of the Swiss Federal Council
             + Presidents of the Confederation
        o Chancellors of Switzerland
        o Presidents of the Swiss National Council
        o Presidents of the Swiss Council of States
        o Chief Justices of the Swiss Supreme Court
        o Presidents of Switzerland
   * Turkey
        o see under Asia above
   * United Kingdom
        o Cabinet of the United Kingdom
             + Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1721-present)
             + Chancellor of the Exchequer (1559-present)
             + Secretary of State for Northern Ireland (1972-present)
             + Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
               (1968-present)
             + Secretary of State for the Colonies (1768-1782; 1794-1801;
               1854-1966)
             + Secretary of State for India (1858-1947)
             + Secretary of State for the Southern Department (1660-1782)
             + Secretary of State for the Northern Department (1660-1782)
             + Secretary of State for the Home Department (1782-present)
             + Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (1782-1968)
             + Secretary of State for War (1794-1801; 1854-1966)
             + Secretary of State for War and the Colonies (1801-1854)
             + Secretary of State for Air (1918-1966)
             + Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs (1925-1947)
             + Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations (1947-1966)
             + Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs (1966-1968)
             + Secretary of State for Scotland (1926-present)
             + Secretary of State for Wales (1964-present)
             + Lord Chancellor (1068-present)
             + Lord President of the Council (1678-present)
             + Lord Privy Seal (1307-present)
             + First Lord of the Admiralty
             + Master-General of the Ordnance (1544-1855)
             + President of the Board of Trade (1696-1782; 1784-present)
             + Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1413-present)
             + Postmaster General (1823-1968)
             + Paymaster of the Forces (1661-1836)
             + Master-General of the Ordnance (1544-1855)
             + Master of the Mint (1572-1869)
             + Treasurer of the Navy (1544-1836)
             + HM Treasury
                  + Chancellor of the Exchequer
                  + Lord Treasurers (1126-1714)
                  + First Lord of the Treasury (1714-1905)
                  + Commissioners of the Treasury (1714-present)
             + Leader of the House of Commons (1721-present)
        o Great Officers of State
             + Lord High Steward
             + Lord High Constable
             + Lord Great Chamberlain
             + Earl Marshal
        o Officers of the Royal Household
             + Lord Steward
             + Lord Chamberlain
        o Members of Parliament elected in 2001
             + Members of the Scottish Parliament
                  + Members of the Scottish Parliament, 1999-2003
             + Members of the National Assembly for Wales
                  + Members of the National Assembly for Wales, 1999-2003
        o Members of the House of Lords
        o British monarchs
             + Line of succession to the British Throne
             + Prince of Wales
             + Duke of York
        o Monarchs of England
        o Duke of Devonshire
        o Bailiffs of Guernsey
        o Tenants of Herm
        o Duke of Norfolk
        o Seigneurs of Sark
        o Tenants of Brecqhou
        o Isle of Man
             + Kings of the Isle of Man
             + Lords of the Isle of Man
             + Governors of the Isle of Man
             + Lieutenant Governors of the Isle of Man
        o Rulers of Wales
        o Incumbents of Gibraltar
        o Commissioners of the British Antarctic Territory
        o High Commissioners of the British Antarctic Territory
        o United Kingdom order of precedence
   * Vatican City
        o Popes
        o Vatican Secretaries of State
   * Yugoslavia
        o Serbian monarchs
        o Rulers of Montenegro

Middle East

   * Egypt
        o Rulers of Modern Egypt
   * Iran and Persia
        o Iranian monarchy
             + Safavids
   * Iraq
        o President of Iraq
        o Prime Ministers of Iraq
        o U.S. most wanted Iraqis (2003)
        o Kings of Iraq
   * Israel
        o Prime Minister of Israel
        o President of Israel
   * Kuwait
        o Al-Sabah
   * Lebanon
        o Prime Ministers of Lebanon
   * Oman
        o Sultans of Oman
   * United Arab Emirates
        o Prime Ministers of the United Arab Emirates

Heads of modern subnational entities

Australia

   * Premier of New South Wales            * Governor of New South Wales
   * Premier of Queensland                 * Governor of Queensland
   * Premier of South Australia            * Governor of South Australia
   * Premier of Tasmania                   * Governors of Tasmania
   * Premier of Victoria                   * Governors of Victoria
   * Premier of Western Australia          * Governor of Western Australia
   * Chief Minister of Norfolk Island      * Administrator of Norfolk
   * Chief Minister of the Northern          Island
     Territory                             * Administrator of the Northern
   * Chief Minister of the Australian        Territory
     Capital Territory

Belgium

   * Minister-Presidents of Brussels
   * Minister-Presidents of Flanders
   * Minister-Presidents of Wallonia

Canada

    * Premiers of Alberta               * Lt. Governors of Alberta
    * Premiers of British Columbia      * Lt. Governors of British Columbia
    * Premiers of Manitoba              * Lt. Governors of Manitoba
    * Premiers of New Brunswick         * Lt. Governors of New Brunswick
    * Premiers of the Northwest         * Lt. Governors of the North-West
      Territories                         Territories
    * Premiers of Nova Scotia           * Lt. Governors of Nova Scotia
    * Premiers of Ontario               * Lt. Governors of Ontario
    * Premiers of Prince Edward         * Lt. Governors of Prince Edward
      Island                              Island
    * Premiers of Quebec                * Lt. Governors of Quebec
    * Premiers of Saskatchewan          * Lt. Governors of Saskatchewan
    * Premiers of Yukon                 * Lt. Governors of Newfoundland and
    * Premiers of Nunavut                 Labrador
    * Premiers of Newfoundland and
      Labrador
    * Newfoundland Prime Ministers

Finland

   * Provincial Governors of Finland

Germany

    * Minister-Presidents of                 * Minister-Pres. of
      Baden-Wrttemberg                        Rhineland-Palatinate
    * Premiers of Bavaria                    * Minister-Pres. of the
    * Minister-Presidents of Brandenburg       Saarland
    * Minister-Presidents of Hesse           * Minister-Pres. of Saxony
    * Minister-Presidents of                 * Minister-Pres. of
      Mecklenburg-Western Pommerania           Saxony-Anhalt
    * Minister-Presidents of Lower Saxony    * Minister-Pres. of
    * Minister-Presidents of North             Schleswig-Holstein
      Rhine-Westphalia                       * Minister-Pres. of Thuringia

Sweden

   * County Governors of Sweden

                           * Kalmar Governors
    * Blekinge Governors   * Kronoberg             * Vrmland Governors
    * Dalarna Governors      Governors             * Vsterbotten Governors
    * Gvleborg            * Norrbotten            * Vsternorrland
      Governors              Governors               Governors
    * Gotland Governors    * Skne Governors       * Vstmanland Governors
    * Halland Governors    * Stockholm             * Vstra Gtaland
    * Jmtland Governors     Governors               Governors
    * Jnkping            * Sdermanland          * rebro Governors
      Governors              Governors             * stergtland Governors
                           * Uppsala Governors

United States

   * Governors of Alabama           * Governors of Montana
   * Governors of Alaska            * Governors of Nebraska
   * Governors of Arizona           * Governors of Nevada
   * Governors of Arkansas          * Governors of New Hampshire
   * Governors of California        * Governors of New Jersey
   * Governors of Colorado          * Governors of New Mexico
   * Governors of Connecticut       * Governors of New York
   * Governors of Delaware          * Governors of North Carolina
   * Governors of Florida           * Governors of North Dakota
   * Governors of Georgia           * Governors of Ohio
   * Governors of Hawaii            * Governors of Oklahoma
   * Governors of Idaho             * Governors of Oregon
   * Governors of Illinois          * Governors of Pennsylvania
   * Governors of Indiana           * Governors of Rhode Island
   * Governors of Iowa              * Governors of South Carolina
   * Governors of Kansas            * Governors of South Dakota
   * Governors of Kentucky          * Governors of Tennessee
   * Governors of Louisiana         * Governors of Texas
   * Governors of Maine             * Governors of Utah
   * Governors of Maryland          * Governors of Vermont
   * Governors of Massachusetts     * Governors of Virginia
   * Governors of Michigan          * Governors of Washington
   * Governors of Minnesota         * Governors of West Virginia
   * Governors of Mississippi       * Governors of Wisconsin
   * Governors of Missouri          * Governors of Wyoming

   * Governors of American Samoa
   * Governors of Guam
   * Governors of Northern Mariana Islands
   * Governors of Puerto Rico
   * Governors of U.S. Virgin Islands
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